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Chapter 14 The Digestive System and Body Metabolism - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 14 The Digestive System and Body Metabolism. Digestive System & Body Metabolism. Digestion Breakdown of ingested food Absorption of nutrients into blood Metabolism Production of cellular energy (ATP) Constructive and degradative activities. Organs of the Digestive System.

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slide2
Digestive System & Body Metabolism
  • Digestion
    • Breakdown of ingested food
    • Absorption of nutrients into blood
  • Metabolism
    • Production of cellular energy (ATP)
    • Constructive and degradative activities
slide3
Organs of the Digestive System

Two main groups

  • Alimentary canal – continuous hollow tube
  • Accessory digestive organs
slide4
Organs of the Alimentary Canal
  • Mouth
  • Pharynx
  • Esophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Anus
slide5
Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy
  • Lips (labia) – protect
  • Cheeks – form lateral walls
  • Hard palate – forms anterior roof
  • Soft palate – forms posterior roof
  • Uvula – fleshy projection of the soft palate
slide6
Mouth (Oral Cavity) Anatomy
  • Vestibule – space between lips & teeth and gums
  • Oral cavity – area contained by teeth
  • Tongue – attached at hyoid and styloid processes of the skull, and by the lingual frenulum
  • Tonsils – Palatine & Lingual
slide7
Processes of the Mouth
  • Mastication (chewing) of food
  • Mixing food with saliva
  • Start swallowing using tongue
  • Sense of taste
slide8
Layers of Alimentary Canal Organs

Mucosa - Moist membrane

  • Surface epithelium
  • connective tissue (lamina propria)
  • Small smooth muscle layer

Submucosa - under mucosa

  • connective tissue with blood vessels, nerve endings, and lymphatics

Muscularis externa – smooth muscle

  • Inner circular layer & Outer longitudinal layer

Serosa - Outermost layer – visceral peritoneum

  • Layer of serous fluid-producing cells
slide9
Alimentary Canal Nerve Plexuses
  • Autonomic nervous system
  • Three networks of nerve fibers
    • Submucosal nerve plexus
    • Myenteric nerve plexus
    • Subserous plexus
slide10
Pharynx Anatomy
  • Nasopharynx – not part of the digestive system
  • Oropharynx – posterior to oral cavity
  • Laryngopharynx – below the oropharynx and connected to the esophagus
slide11
Pharynx Function
  • Passageway for air and food
  • Food moved by peristalsis
    • alternating contractions of muscle layers
    • Longitudinal inner layer
    • Circular outer layer
slide12
Esophagus
  • From pharynx to stomach through diaphragm
  • Moves food by peristalsis
  • Food only
slide13
Stomach Anatomy
  • Left side of abdomen
  • Food enters at cardioesophageal sphincter
  • Regions
    • Cardiac region – near the heart
    • Fundus
    • Body
    • Phylorus – funnel-shaped terminal end
  • Food empties into the small intestine at the pyloric sphincter
  • Rugae – internal folds of the mucosa
slide14
Stomach Anatomy
  • External regions
    • Lesser curvature
    • Greater curvature
  • Layers of peritoneum attached to the stomach
    • Lesser omentum – attaches liver to lesser curvature
    • Greater omentum – attaches greater curvature to posterior body wall
    • fat insulates, cushions, protects
slide15
Stomach Functions
  • Storage tank for food
  • Physical breakdown
  • Chemical breakdown of protein begins
  • Delivers chyme (processed food) to the small intestine
slide16
Specialized Mucosa of the Stomach

Simple columnar epithelium

  • Mucous neck cells – produce a sticky alkaline mucus
  • Gastric glands – secrete gastric juice
  • Chief cells – produce protein-digesting enzymes (pepsinogens)
  • Parietal cells – produce hydrochloric acid
  • Endocrine cells – produce gastrin
  • Gastric pits formed by folded mucosa
  • Glands and specialized cells are in the gastric gland region
slide17
Small Intestine
  • Major digestive organ
  • Nutrient absorption
  • From pyloric sphincter to ileocecal valve
  • Suspended from abdominal wall by mesentery
  • 3 parts:
    • Duodenum - curves around pancreas
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
slide18
Chemical Digestion in the Small Intestine
  • Source of enzymes that are mixed with chyme
    • Intestinal cells
    • Pancreas
  • Bile enters from the gall bladder
slide19
Villi of Sm. Intestine

Microvilli of Sm. Intestine

  • Fingerlike structures formed by mucosa
  • Give intestine more surface area
  • Small projections of plasma membrane
  • Found on absorptive cells
slide20
Large Intestine
  • Wider, but shorter,frames the abdomen
  • Cecum – saclike first part
  • Appendix - Hangs from the cecum
  • Colon
    • Ascending
    • Transverse
    • Descending
    • S-shaped sigmoidal
  • Rectum
  • Anus – external body opening
slide21
Functions of the Large Intestine
  • Absorbs of water
  • Eliminates feces – indigestible food
  • No digestion
  • Goblet cells produce mucus as lubricant
slide22
Modifications to the Muscularis Externa in the Large Intestine
  • Smooth muscle is reduced to three bands (teniae coli)
  • Muscle bands have some degree of tone
  • Walls formed into pocketlike sacs called haustra