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TAJUK 5: Perkembangan Kognitif

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  1. TAJUK 5: PerkembanganKognitif

  2. Cognitive Development

  3. Cognitive Development…. • Refers to • Internal process and the product of the mind  leading to knowledge development • Covers a wide aspects of mental activities: • Memorizing • Categorizing & simbolizing • Problem solving & creativity • Inventions • Dreaming &fantasizing • Reading & Writing • Language acquisition etc

  4. Cognitive Development involves: • Changes in thinking (logic) • Language acquisition • The process of how human receive, store and remember information (knowledge) from their environment.

  5. Intellectual Development : • How human relate the knowledge they receive and applied it to their everyday lives. • How the information from the environment • Receive • Stored • Re-use • Stressed on individual • Level of understanding & use of knowledge

  6. Thus, every changes, including those learned is being:- • Recorded by the brain • Processed which involves mental activities • The thinking & reasoning process of children differs from adolescent and adults. • As age increases, the ability to think and reasons became complex (better)

  7. Improvements in Information Processing During Infancy

  8. Store Model of Information Processing System

  9. Piaget Cognitive theory • Focus on the • Function and the reaction of the mind  to the environment • According to Piaget: • Human being can think and are rational • The thinking ability of a child is strong and inquisitive : • Always interact with their environment  consistent to their understanding and cognitive ability. • Piaget argued that children have schemas.

  10. Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory : • SCHEMA is a/an… • cognitive structure  built to assist individual to understand their past experiences. • Organized ways of making sense of experience • Child’s schemas change with age involved the modification of intellectual schemas as the child seeks to understand its world • Action-based (motor patterns) at first • Later move to a mental (thinking) level • Thus, Schemas are • organized patterns of thought or behavior  assist in making sense of experience

  11. How Cognitive Changes Takes Place? • Through the process of Adaptation & Organization. • A Child cognitive ability rely a lot on: • How a child response to an event that occurs in their environment. • The effect of these event on their development. • Schemas developed by children must be able to handle new information and situations • Schema can be built based on adaptationprocess • Adaptationis the process of building schemes through direct interaction with the environment.

  12. According to Piaget, adaptation can be further divided into two intellectual processes: • Assimilation:Involves interpreting new information in light of an old (existing) schema • All 4-legged animals are viewed as a “dog” • Accommodation:Process by which old schemas are created or modified to fit new situations • A horse is not a “dog”

  13. Organization is an internal process of arranging and linking together schemas to form an interconnected cognitive system. Schemas reach a true state of equilibrium when they become part of a broad network of structures that can be jointly applied to the surrounding world.

  14. Piaget’s Theory on The Level of Cognitive Development Stages of Cognitive development: • Sensory Motor (0-2 yrs old) • Pre operational (2-7 yrs old) • Concrete Operation (7-11 yrs old) • Formal Operation (12 and above)

  15. Stage 1:Sensorimotor

  16. Sensorimotor Stage • Birth to 2 years • Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration • Circular reactions

  17. Stage 1: Sensorimotor (0-2 yrs) • Piaget based this stage on his observation of his children. • Emphasize on Circular Reaction (CR): • CR the means by which infants explore the environment and build schemas by trying to repeat chance events caused by their own motor activity. • Reactions are first centered on infant’s own body later change to manipulating objects  then to produce effects in the environment. • 8-12 mths  Concept of Object permanence develop • Object permanence, the realization that an object/person continues to exist when out of sight.

  18. Sensorimotor Substages

  19. Object Permanence • Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight • According to Piaget, develops in Substage 4. • Incomplete at first

  20. Mental Representations • Internal, mental depictions of objects, people, events, information • Can manipulate with mind • Allow deferred imitation (ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not immediately present) and make-believe play

  21. Deferred Imitation • Piaget: Develops about 18 months • Newer research: • Present at 6 weeks – facial imitation • 6 – 9 months – copy actions with objects • 12 – 14 months – imitate rationally • 18 months – imitate intended, but not completed, actions

  22. Into Preoperational Stage….. • As child enters preoperational stage, the earlier abilities/skill continue to develop & become better, such as abilities in : • object permanence • Mental representations • Deferred Imitation

  23. Stage 2: The Preoperational Child

  24. Stage 2: The Preoperational Child (2-7 yrs old) • Cognitive Advances • Ages 2 to 7 yrs is a time of great expansion in the use of *symbolic thought, or representational ability, which first emerges at the end of the sensorimotor stage • The use of symbols is a universal mark of human culture. Without symbols, people could not communicate verbally, make change, read maps, or treasure photos of distant loved ones. Yet an understanding of symbolism comes only gradually usually after age 3. • Growing understanding of space, causality, identities, categorization, and number

  25. Piaget’s Preoperational Stage • Gains in Mental Representation • Make-believe Play • Dual Representation • Limitations in Thought — Cannot Perform Mental Operations • Egocentrism and Animistic Thinking • Conservation • Hierarchical Classification

  26. Development of Make-Believe Play ….. • With age, make-believe gradually becomes: • More detached from real-life conditions • Less self-centered • More complex • Sociodramatic Play

  27. Dual Representation • Viewing a symbolic object as both an object and a symbol • Mastered around age 3 • Adult teaching can help • Provide lots of maps, photos, drawings, make-believe playthings, etc. • Point out similarities to real world

  28. Animistic Thinking • Belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities

  29. Immature Aspects Of Preoperational Thoughts….. • Cannot reason logically as to cause and effect • Attribute life to inanimate objects = animism • Failure to understand conservation: two things remain equal if their appearance changes but nothing is added or taken away • Egocentrism : Center so much on their own point of view that they cannot take in another's • Conservation: Understanding that the basic properties of an object are constant even if the object changes shape

  30. Egocentrism • Egocentrism refers to a cognitive view in which a child understands the world to have only their view (has great difficulty in understanding the views of others) • E.g: Piaget’s three-mountain task. A preoperational child is unable to describe the “mountains” from the doll’s point of view - an indication of egocentrism

  31. Limits on Conservation • CentrationFocus on one aspect and neglect others • IrreversibilityCannot mentally reverse a set of steps

  32. Stage 3: The Concrete Operational Child (7-12 yrs old)

  33. Achievements of a Concrete Operational Stage Child • Conservation • Decentration • Reversibility • Classification/ categorization • Seriation • Transitive inference • Spatial Reasoning • Directions • Maps

  34. Steps in Planning • Postponing action to weigh alternatives • Organizing task materials • Remembering steps of plan • Monitoring how well plan works • Revising if necessary

  35. Development in Memorizing Strategies • Chunking - Breaking the information into manageable chunk. • eg. OFHRTJUDYCX  OFH RTJ UDY CX • Rehearsal - Simple repetition • Elaboration  when info to be remembered is linked to other information • Imagery - Conjured image of an object/related meaning. • Mnemonics - Memory strategy to help remember information • Eg. A rhyme or pairing of to-be-learned information with well learned information. • Schema activation - Strategy to use with encoding complex info.  relates new information to prior knowledge. • Level of processing -Material that is only skimmed will not be as deeply processed as material that is studied in detail.

  36. Stage 4: The Formal Operational Child/Adolescent (12 & above)

  37. Cognitive development • Rapid Mental activities • Cognitive development - better • Organisation and thinking process • Reasoning abilities

  38. Formal Operation • Aspects Of Cognitive Maturation • Develop the capacity for abstract thought a new, more flexible way to manipulate information • Can use symbols more extensively • Can understand metaphor and allegory • Can imagine possibilities and can form and test hypotheses (hypothetical-deductive reasoning) • Gradual accumulation of knowledge and expertise in specific fields • Higher gain of information-processing capacity; • Growth in metacognition awareness and monitoring of one's own mental processes and strategies.

  39. Changes in the adolescent stage: • Language ability • Ability in making decision • Memory and reasoning capacity

  40. INTELLIGENCE

  41. IQ Tests

  42. IQ Tests Group Tests • Allow testing of large groups • Require little training to administer • Useful for instructional planning • Identify students who need individual testing Individually-Administered Tests • Examiners need training & experience • Provide insights about accuracy of score • Identify highly intelligent and children with learning problems

  43. Types (examples) of IQ test: • Bayley Scales of Infant Development (0-2 ½ yrs) • Mental, motor, social scale • Standford-Binet Intelligence Scale (2- adult) • General, verbal, quantitative, abstract/visual, short term memory scale • Weschler Intelligence Scale for children (WISC III) • 3-8 yrs (Weschler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - WPPSI-R) • 6-16 yrs (WISC) • Verbal & performance scale • Kaufman Battery of Assessment • Information processing

  44. Calculating IQ • Formula * MA/CA x 100 = IQ Ma = mental age CA = Chronological age • Example • Hasif is 10 yrs old and got a metal age of 12 years old. Thus Hasif have an IQ of 120, ie. 12/10 x 100 = 120 • According to IQ score chart, • Score above100 = cerdik pintar • Score between 100 -69 = kurang kemampuan intelektual • score of 70 & below = kurang upaya mental

  45. Explaining Differences in IQ • Genetics • Accounts for about half of differences • Environment • SES • Culture • Communication styles • Cultural bias in test content

  46. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences • Linguistic • Logico-mathematical • Musical • Spatial • Bodily-kinesthetic • Naturalist • Interpersonal • Intrapersonal

  47. The Child in School……. • Children with Learning Problems • Mental retardation =significantly subnormal cognitive functioning • Dyslexia=developmental reading disorder in which reading achievement is substantially below the level predicted by IQ or age. • Learning disabilities=disorders that interfere with school achievementperformance substantially lower than expected. • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with or without hyperactivity • ADHD has a substantial genetic basis, with heritability approaching 80 percent • ADHD is generally treated with drugs, sometimes combined with behavioral therapy, counseling, training in social skills, and special classroom placement

  48. Gifted and Talented Children • Gifted • Exceptional intellectual strength • The traditional criterion of giftedness is high general intelligence, as shown by an • Usually measured by high IQ (score of 130 or higher) • Talented • Outstanding performance in a specific field • Measured by divergent thinking and creativity

  49. Gifted Children: • these children were taller, healthier, better coordinated, better adjusted, and more popular than the average child • Their cognitive, scholastic, and vocational superiority has held up for nearly eighty years • Creativity = ability to see things in a new light • divergent thinking • enrichment or acceleration classes for both gifted and creative children

  50. Milestone in children cognitive development(2-12 yrs old)