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The Nitrogen Cycle - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Component. Input to soil. Loss from soil. Atmospheric nitrogen. The Nitrogen Cycle. Industrial fixation (commercial fertilizers). Atmospheric fixation and deposition. Crop harvest. Animal manures and biosolids. Volatilization. Plant residues. Runoff and erosion. Biological

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Presentation Transcript
the nitrogen cycle

Component

Input to soil

Loss from soil

Atmospheric

nitrogen

The Nitrogen Cycle

Industrial fixation

(commercial fertilizers)

Atmospheric

fixation

and deposition

Crop

harvest

Animal

manures

and biosolids

Volatilization

Plant

residues

Runoff and

erosion

Biological

fixation by

legume plants

Plant

uptake

Denitrification

Organic

nitrogen

Nitrate

(NO3)

Ammonium

(NH4)

-

Immobilization

+

Leaching

Mineralization

the phosphorus cycle

Component

Input to soil

Loss from soil

Atmospheric

deposition

Crop

harvest

The Phosphorus Cycle

Animal

manures

and biosolids

Mineral

fertilizers

Plant

residues

Runoff and

erosion

Primary

minerals

(apatite)

  • Organic phosphorus
  • Microbial
  • Plant residue
  • Humus

Mineral

surfaces

(clays, Fe and

Al oxides,

carbonates)

Plant

uptake

Weathering

Adsorption

Immobilization

Mineralization

Desorption

  • Soil solution
  • phosphorus
  • HPO4-2
  • H2PO4-1

Secondary

compounds

(CaP, FeP, MnP, AlP)

Dissolution

Leaching

(usually minor)

Precipitation

the potassium cycle

Component

Input to soil

Loss from soil

The Potassium Cycle

Animal

manures

and biosolids

Crop

harvest

Plant

residues

Mineral

fertilizers

Runoff and

erosion

Exchangeable

potassium

Plant

uptake

Soil solution

potassium (K+)

Fixed

potassium

Mineral

potassium

Leaching

the sulfur cycle

Component

Input to soil

Loss from soil

Atmospheric

sulfur

The Sulfur Cycle

Volatilization

Atmospheric

deposition

Crop

harvest

SO2 gas

Mineral

fertilizers

Plant

residues

Animal

manures

and biosolids

Elemental

sulfur

Runoff and

erosion

Absorbed or

mineral sulfur

Plant

uptake

Oxidation

Organic

sulfur

Reduced sulfur

Bacterial oxidation

Immobilization

Sulfate

Sulfur

(SO4)

Bacterial reduction

Mineralization

-

Leaching