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ATMOSPHERE MANIPULATION INSIDE THE PACKAGE. THE TYPES OF ATMOSPHERE MANIPULATION INSIDE THE PACKAGE. are Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP) Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) Vacuum Packaging. CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING (CAP).

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the types of atmosphere manipulation inside the package

THE TYPES OFATMOSPHERE MANIPULATION INSIDE THE PACKAGE

are

Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP)

Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP)

Vacuum Packaging

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controlled atmosphere packaging cap
CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING (CAP)

Controlled Atmosphere Packaging refers to system whose objective is to extend the shelf life of food product by altering the gaseous environment in and around the food

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More precise definition:The development and maintenance of a precise combination of gases in the environment surrounding the food production throughout its shelf life

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The term CAP usually is applied to packaging of respiring food products:
  • Fresh meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish

or

  • Foods with respiring biological contaminant such as microorganisms

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inert gas packaging cap inert packaging
Inert Gas PackagingCAP ≠ Inert Packaging

In inert packaging:

Oxygen in the environment surrounding nonrespiring foods is removed and replaced by an inert gas such as nitrogen

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Inert gas packaging is often applied to longterm storage of dry powder products:
  • Instant coffee
  • Soft cookies
  • Dry milk

 to retard oxidation

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modified atmosphere packaging map
MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE PACKAGING (MAP)

 The initial application of an atmosphere other than air with no further control of the atmosphere

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map and cap
MAP and CAP

is called also

GAS FLUSHING

 Insertion of gases to replace atmosphere inside the package

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application
APPLICATION

In the USA:

  • More than 80% of the beef is being shipped from meat packers to retailer in the form of vacuum packaging of primal cuts
  • Almost all cured or processed meat products are packed under either vacuum orinert atmosphere
  • Quantities of fresh vegetables and fruits are transported under modified atmosphere condition

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In West Europe
  • Dozens of meat packers and thousands of stores employ modified atmosphere to distribute retail cuts of red meat to stores and consumer
  • Hundred of bakeries are employing controlled atmosphere packaging to extend the distribution cycle of soft bakery products

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In Canada:
  • bakeries employ CAP
  • retail chain uses MA packaging for meatsand seafoods

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principles of preservation
Principles of Preservation
  • To slow microbiological growths lowering temperature
  • To destroy microorganism  application of heat
  • Microorganisms slow their respiration and growth processes when oxygen is reduced and the respiratory gases such as carbon dioxide are increased

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history of map cap
History of MAP/CAP
  • In 1930s and 1940s fresh apples and pear were placed in enclosed warehouses
  • The natural respiration of the fruit reduced the oxygen and increased the carbon dioxide within the warehouse sufficiently to significantly slow respiration
  • Apples could be consumed as long as six months after the original harvest (about double the normal cold storage shelf life)

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In 1950s and 1960s scientist from Whirlpool Corporation developed a method to control the atmosphere surrounding meat, fruit, and vegetable products under refrigerated conditions
  • The concept called TECTROL (Total Environmental Control) employing a gas burner to reduce the oxygen, evolving air to the exterior to prevent oxygen extinction and permit the use of filters and scrubbers to remove excess carbon dioxide

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By the mid to late 1960s hundreds of apple and pear warehouses throughout the world were equipped with TECTROL system to extend the shelf life of the fruits
  • The TECTROL system was applied in transportation system of fruits and vegetables and become TECTROL – TRANSFRESH system

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tectrol transfresh
TECTROL – TRANSFRESH
  • Use of polyethylene film liners in transport vehicles such a truck and rail cars to contain the gas and to function to partially control the gas content
  • Now the TECTROL – TRANSFRESH system is delivering bulk packages of fresh vegetables to hotel, restaurant and retail outlets

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The gases used in MAP/CAP:

O2 : - preserve the red color of meat

- avoid deterioration by anaerobic microorganism

CO2 : - avoid the development of molds and bacteria

N2 : - avoid rancidity

- avoid deterioration caused by molds

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When O2↓

CO2 ↑

  • Respiration is slower
  • Growth of microorganism is retarded
  • Fruit ripening is inhibited
  • Lower the risk of chilling injury

Condition: the temperature of storage

the lower the better

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Example : with 20% CO2

Storage life: 2 times in room temperature

4 times in refrigerated temperature

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In meat, CO2 affect the pH

CO2 entering meat tissues  producing acid carbonate

Resulting the lowering pH

As a result the development of microorganism is retarded or inhibited

When temperature is decreased the CO2 solubility in tissues is increased

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MAP/CAP for red meat

O2 : 60% - 80%

CO2 : 20% - 40%

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MAP/CAP for bread and related products

O2 < 1%

CO2 > 20%

Storage life

Bread: 4 weeks

Cookies :6 months

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other application map cap
Other application MAP/CAP

Pasta :CO2 20%

N2 70%

Pizza :CO2 50%

N2 50%

Sandwich :CO2 80%

N2 20%

Storage life : 4 weeks

Storage life : 3 weeks

Storage life : 3 weeks

(+refrigeration)

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vacuum packaging1
VACUUM PACKAGING

Vacuum packaging is employed to achieved oxygen free atmosphere and to extend the refrigerated shelf life of:

  • fresh meats
  • processed meats

 Vacuum packaging is also called

SKIN PACKAGING

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history
History

During World War II latex bag was used to pack food product

  • Latex (rubber) packed food product tightly  oxygen free

In modern time : atmosphere is by sucking

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In 1960s shrink vacuum packaging was applied to turkey and red meat by CRYOVAC

 in the absence of oxygen, meat spoilage is retarded

  • The CRYOVAC process was applied to pack cut of beef

 the bag: did not permit the passage of water vapor  reduced weight loss

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Product packed with vacuum packaging
  • Meat
  • Poultry
  • Processed food
  • Fish
  • Cheese
  • Coffee
  • Cut vegetables

Storage life: 2 -3 times

21 days at low temperature

6 months at freezing temperature

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Packaging material used in vacuum packaging

Nylon – polyethylene laminate

or aluminum foil

PE : - good heat seal property

- water resistant (low moisture

transmission rate)

Nylon : - give strength

- barrier to O2

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vacuum packaging will
Vacuum packaging will
  • Avoid evaporation
  • Avoid weight loss
  • Avoid dryness of product
  • Avoid fat oxidation
  • Avoid leaching of fluid and blood
  • Avoid freezer burn
  • No need to treat the surface of product for trimming

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thank you
THANK YOU

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