RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. I. Respiratory system - General purpose and structure. 1. AIR CONDUCTING PORTION a. Nasal cavity, oral cavity b. Nasopharynx, oropharynx, and larynx c. Trachea d. Bronchi e. Bronchioles f. Terminal bronchioles g. These provide a passageway to and from lungs
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C. In components of the respiratory tract including the trachea and structures below we may find
a. Epithelium of various types depending on what part of the respiratory tree you’re in
6. Adventitia - Hyaline cartilage is found at the base of the submucosa in the trachea, primary bronchi, and intrapulmonary bronchi.
b. Lamina propria contains many lymphocytes that are supported by a meshwork of elastic and reticular fibers.
c. A band of elastic fibers called the membrana elastica interna separates the mucosa from the sub mucosa.
d. The submucosa is composed of loose connective tissue and contains the secretory components of serous and mucous glands whose ducts empty into the tracheal lumen.
3. Tertiary and smaller bronchi. Differences in the histology develop as the bronchi become smaller.
* Terminal bronchioles - form connection between “larger” bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles
* Respiratory bronchioles - form connection between terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts
A. THE COLUMNAR RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM EXHIBITS PLASTICITY. Interesting to note that changes in air flow may result in new abrasive sites on the epithelium. This can cause changes in the constitution and form of the epithelium.
Normal respiratory epithelium
Basal cell nuclei
8. Alvelolar Type II cells - bulge into lumen of alveolus
1. The endothelium of the capillaries - continuous, non-fenestrated endothelium.
2. Basal laminas of epithelia of aveolar type I cells and capillary endothelial cells that are fused at some points.
3. Smooth muscle cells
5. Elastic and reticular fibers
6. Pores between adjacent alveoli
3. Also find alveolar macrophages called dust cells - usually free in the alveolar lumen, but also in tissues between alveoli.
Fig. On p. 285 in text
b. The blood-air barrier prevents air in gaseous form from mixing with the blood.