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Planting and Care of Your Trees. Randy Zondag The Ohio State University Extension- Lake County. Tree Survival School 2010. Information on this Program. My Website : http://lake.osu.edu http://hcs.osu.edu/basicgreen Links Weather stations Pest Management Information

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planting and care of your trees

Planting and Care of Your Trees

Randy Zondag

The Ohio State University Extension-Lake County

Tree Survival School 2010

information on this program
Information on this Program
  • My Website :

http://lake.osu.edu

http://hcs.osu.edu/basicgreen

  • Links

Weather stations

Pest Management Information

Programs

slide6

Hydrological

Discontinuity

introduction
Introduction
  • Site Evaluation
  • Proper Tools
  • Site Preparation
  • Depth of Planting
  • Watering
  • Mulching
  • Staking?
  • Pruning
  • Future Care
site evaluation
Site Evaluation
  • Size :

Will the plants fit in the future

  • Soils :

Physical vs chemical characterisitcs

  • Buildings:
  • Existing plants
  • Utilities :

Sewer, power, septic, gas,

slide12

SOIL: From the Ground, Up!

Soil Profile:

it looks like a layer cake

slide15

Why was the tree planted before the driveway was finished?

Soil Structure and Compaction

Where the rubber meets more than the road!

slide17

Air-Knife in Nursery

Too Deep in Nursery

Root growing to surface

when do we plant
When do we Plant ?
  • B&B- Spring and Fall
  • Bare root – mostly spring
  • Container –when the ground is workable
slide19

How Deep Should You Plant ?

  • So the flare of the plant is at the surface

How Big Should The Hole Be?

  • Three times larger than the ball
  • Only as deep as the ball so the flare is at the surface
  • No topsoil should be added to the site

Why?

backfill
Backfill
  • The soil that goes into the hole after planting. Use what is there.
stalking
Stalking ?
  • Why
  • How
slide24

Mulches Verses Soil Amendments

  • Mulches are course substances used to cover the surface of the ground for:
  • Moisture , temperature, weed control and appearance
  • Amendments are substances added to soil to improve soil structure and tilth.
what is mulch
What is Mulch?

An organic or inorganic material applied to the soil surface, usually during the growing season, or over the plant for the dormant season.

why mulch
Beautification

To make surfaces more attractive

To reduce soil splashing

Enhance Usage

To make surface areas more usable for paths, play, etc.

Decrease Maintenance

Surface Insulation

To conserve moisture

To moderate extremesin temperature

Pest / Disease Management

To prevent weeds

To prevent disease

To prevent insects

Soil Amendment

To improve aggregation

To prevent soil compaction

To increase water adsorption and retention

To protect against erosion

To increase soil fertility

Why Mulch?
mulch problems
Mulch Problems

“Volcano” Mulch Method….

Over-Mulching

  • Stops free air exchange, suffocating roots.
  • Blocks penetration of water / fertilizer
  • Causes stem rot
  • New roots may grow into mulch elevating the root system.
  • Creates a “rodent haven.”

…more than 2 feet high!

planting practices and procedures
Planting practices and procedures
  • One of the most important cultural practices
  • Determines the success or failure
  • Requires great care and special attention
soil chemistry ph

NEUTRAL

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

0

14

Nitrogen

Phos.

Potassium (K)

Iron (Fe)

Soil Chemistry: pH
ph balancing materials
pH Balancing Materials

Lime

  • Hydrated
  • Dolomite

Gypsum

Sulfur

  • Aluminum sulfate
  • Iron sulfate
  • Flowers of sulfur
soil chemistry soil test

Soil Test Results: Ideal Values

pH

Phosphorus

P

lb/A*

Potassium

K

lb/A*

Calcium

Ca

lb/A*

Base Saturation

Magnesium

Mg

lb/A*

Cation ExchangeCapacity

(CEC)

meq/100g

%

Ca

%

Mg

%

K

7 – 10

or higher

5.5 – 6.5

50 – 100

800 plus

150 – 250

40 % -

80%

10% -

40%

3% -

5%

250 – 400

Soil Chemistry: Soil Test

* To convert lb/A (pounds per acre) to ppm (parts per million), divide by 2: 100 lb/A = 50 ppm

slide46

Why Soil Test?

Most common question: “how much fertilizer do I need to use?”

  • Answer: “how should I know?”
  • What if your physician told you to take iron tablets…without a blood test?
  • The only way you can learn the answer is to have the blood tested…
  • …have soil tested
tree root morphology planting
Tree Root Morphology & Planting

Exposed Roots: these “shallow roots” are actually normal

Proper Planting Hole: note the sloped sides

kinds of nursery stock
Kinds of Nursery Stock

Balled and Burlapped

Container Grown

Bare Root

planting times
Planting times
  • Regular season (spring and fall )
  • Containerized (any time the ground is not frozen )
  • Bare root (plant while dormant; spring, late fall –after leaf drop )
ten steps for proper planting
Ten Steps for Proper Planting

Dig a shallow and wide hole

Find the topmost root (trunk flare)

Carefully place plant in hole

Position top root 1-2 inches above grade

Straighten plant

Remove synthetic materials

Add and firm backfill soil

Add mulch

Prune and stake if needed

Water plants slowly and throughly.

planting mistakes that kill
Planting Mistakes that Kill

Plant em high—watch em die

Plant em low—never grow

ten steps for proper planting1
Ten Steps for Proper Planting

Dig a shallow and wide hole

Find the topmost root (trunk flare)

Carefully place plant in hole

Position top root 1-2 inches above grade

Straighten plant

Remove synthetic materials

Add and firm backfill soil

Add mulch

Prune and stake if needed

Water plants slowly and throughly.

what is mulch1
What is Mulch?

An organic or inorganic material applied to the soil surface, usually during the growing season, or over the plant for the dormant season.

mulch problems1
Mulch Problems

“Volcano” Mulch Method….

Over-Mulching

  • Stops free air exchange, suffocating roots.
  • Blocks penetration of water / fertilizer
  • Causes stem rot
  • New roots may grow into mulch elevating the root system.
  • Creates a “rodent haven.”

…more than 2 feet high!

adventitious roots are a sign of problems

Adventitious Roots are a Sign of Problems

When planted to deep a gap will form around the trunk.

Adventitious roots grow rapidly in that opening and don’t grow out into that soil .

slide91

Know Your Supplier

1 ¾” hackberry, 18” balls: all with 8 – 13” of soil over first main order roots

new plant maintenance list
New Plant Maintenance List
  • At Planting
  • Prune unwanted and dead branches
  • Create a water dish or burm at the edge of the rootball
  • Mulch as large an area as possible. No deeper than 3” deep and never against the trunk of the plant.
  • Throughly water even if it rains. 20 gallons of water per tree within 8 hours of planting.
new plant maintenance list1
New Plant Maintenance List
  • Summer
  • Water plants each week ,Unless:

more than one inch of rain occurs.

new plant maintenance list2
New Plant Maintenance List
  • Fall
  • Control weeds in the mulch bed
  • Apply up to one pound of actual Nitrogen per 1000 square feet . After leaf drop.
year 2
Year 2
  • Spring
  • Remove all stakes ,tags and wires
  • Control weeds
  • Refresh mulch (only 3 inche total depth)
  • Prune unwanted growth
year 21
Year 2
  • Fall
  • Control weeds
  • Fertilize with up to 2 pounds of actual N per 1000 Sq. Ft.
year 3 5 6 8and 9
Year 3,5,6,8and 9
  • Spring
  • Control weeds
  • Refresh mulch
  • Prune every 2 to 3 years
year 3 5 6 8and 91
Year 3,5,6,8and 9
  • Fall
  • Control weeds
  • Fall fertilize with up to 2 # of actual N per 1000 Sq. Ft.
year 4 7 and 10
Year 4, 7 and 10
  • Spring
  • In trees prune leaders ,raise branches, so the crown is on the upper 2/3 of the tree, remove dead and broken branches and suckers. Remove poor crotch angles while the branch is small.