Introduction to the Human Body-Chapter 1 Outline. Divisions of Study A. Study of human body divided into two areas Anatomy- study of structure i.e. gross anatomy Physiology - function i.e. Quadricep: how it contracts. B. The study of Anatomy describes
Divisions of Study • A. Study of human body divided into two areas • Anatomy- study of structure • i.e. gross anatomy • Physiology- function • i.e. Quadricep: how it contracts
B. The study of Anatomy describes • 1. location- where is it? • 2. appearance- what does it look like? • 3. relationship of body parts- how does one part relate to others?
C. The study of Physiology explains the mechanisms that operate body activities-How does it work? • Ex- muscle/muscle system. How do muscles contract and relax to make the muscular system work?
D. How a particular body part works, depends on its structure • Ex- The function of the skeletal system is to give our body • 1.support 2. structure 3. protection • structure: bones are made up of hard materials such as calcium to help in its function
II. Basic Terminology • A. Terms used in the study of Anatomy and Physiology are based on • latin or greek word parts. • 1. Universal language • 2. Understood throughout the world
B. Anatomical terms formed from these word parts are often descriptive of the body part or function • Ex Myocardium- Myo (Greek)= muscle + cardia( heart)= heart muscle • Erythrocyte- Erythro (Greek)= red + cyte(cell)= red blood cell
C. Directional Terms • 1. Directional Terminology- language used to describe the location of a body structure relative to another • a. Based on Body being in the Anatomical Position • 1. Standing- erect • 2. Facing- the observer • 3. Arms- at the side • 4. Palms and Toes- turned forward
b. Directional Terminology is invaluable tool- eliminates lengthy descriptions and removes question of what position the body is in.
1. Superior- towards the head or upper body • Ex- head is superior to chest • 2. Inferior- away from head or towards lower part of body • Ex- buttocks is inferior to the back
3. Anterior- (ventral)- towards front body • Ex- eyes are on the anterior portion of head • 4. Posterior- (dorsal)- towards the back of body • Ex- backbone extends down the posterior side of the body
5. Medial- towards the midline of body • Ex- medial portion of thigh • 6. Lateral- away from midline • Ex- ears are in the lateral portion of the head
7. Proximal- towards a structure’s origin • (origin is the point of attachment) • Ex- humerus is proximal to the wrist • 8. Distal- away from structure’s origin • Ex- wrist is distal to humerus
9. Superficial- towards the surface • Ex- skin is superficial to skeleton • 10. Deep- inward from surface of body • Ex- heart and lungs lie deep to rib cage
2. Body Planes • a. A plane is an imaginary flat surface, used by anatomical artists to slice through a specimen • b. Three basic types of Body Planes
1. Sagittal- divides body into right and left halves • (midsagittal/median)- divides right and left sides equally • 2. Frontal- divides body into front and back • 3. Transverse (horizontal)- divides body into upper and lower body parts and makes a clear cross-section
Separates the body into right and left segments Mid-sagittal plane separates into equal right and left segments Imaginary line known as the midline Sagittal Plane
Separates the body into front and back segments Better used terminology would be? Frontal Plane (Coronal plane)
Separates the body into upper and lower segments Better used terminology would be? Transverse Plane
III. Structural Levels of Organization • Human Body composed of 6 distinct levels or organization • A. Chemical level- atoms→molecules→macromolecules • macro: proteins • lipids • carbs. ( all give structural foundation for body) • nucleic acids
B. Cellular level- basic structural and functional units of living things • Ex- blood, muscle cells, nerve cells • C. Tissue level- group of similar cells that combine to form common fxn • Ex- muscle tissue • D. Organ level- two or more different types of tissues performing a general fxn
E. System level- two or more organs acting in conjunction to make a system • F. Complete Organism- composed of many systems depending on one another to perform tasks
IV. The Body Plan • A. Human Body is divided into major areas called regions • 1. Head- cranium/cephalic region • face (frontal) • 2. Neck- cervical • 3. Trunk- thorax (sternal and pectoral) • abdominal, umbilical, inguinal (groin) • pelvis (inguinal/groin), coxal (hip), • back (dorsum, vertebral,lumbar,sacral
4. Upper Appendage- from superior to inferior shoulder (acromial),armpit (axilla) upper arm (brachium) elbow (cubital) front of elbow (antecubital) forearm (antebrachium) wrist (carpus), hand (manus), palm of hand (palmar), fingers (digits)
5. Lower Appendage- from superior to inferior • Buttocks (Gluteus) anal-reproductiveorgan area (perineal) thigh (femorus) knee (popliteal/patellar), lower leg (crural) instep (tarsal), top of foot (pedal), bottom of foot (plantar), toes (digits)
B. Body Cavities • 1. the body is divided into several cavities that contain many organs. • 2. There are 2 major body cavities which can be subdivided into several smaller cavities.
a. Dorsal Cavity- posterior side of body • 1. Cranial Cavity- skull (protects brain) • 2. Vertebral Canal- vertebrae (protects spinal cord)
b. Ventral Cavity-anterior side of body • 1. Separated into two smaller cavities by the- diaphragm • (Greek for barrier) • L3= ventral is divided into smaller cavities • pleural: lung • pericardial: heart
. Thoracic Cavity- upper portion of body • protected by rib cage, locates lungs and heart • b. Abdominopelvic Cavity- lower portion of body • -abdominal: protects stomach, s. & l intestines, liver, pancreas, spleen. • -pelvic Cavity- formed by iliac (hip), contains urinary bladder, repro. parts.
Cover the two lungs individually Complications? Pleural cavity
Outer covering of the heart Similar complications as with the lungs Pericardial cavity