an introduction to the human body
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An Introduction to the Human Body. Chapter 1. Anatomy. Study of structure or morphology Study of relationships among structures Derived from the Greek words Anatome – to dissect Ana – apart Tomy - cut. Sub-divisions of Anatomy. Gross Anatomy (macroscopic) Study of large body parts

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  • Study of structure or morphology
  • Study of relationships among structures
  • Derived from the Greek words
    • Anatome – to dissect
    • Ana – apart
    • Tomy - cut
sub divisions of anatomy
Sub-divisions of Anatomy
  • Gross Anatomy (macroscopic)
    • Study of large body parts

(muscles, bones and internal organs)

sub divisions of anatomy1
Sub-divisions of Anatomy
  • Histology (microscopic)
    • Study of cells and tissues requiring the use of a microscope
  • The study of functions of body parts (what they do) and how they work
    • Physio – working
    • Ology - study
sub divisions of physiology
Sub-divisions of Physiology
  • Neurophysiology - brain and nervous tissue
  • Cardiac physiology – heart
  • Respiratory – lungs, trachea, bronchii
  • Reproductive – reproductive organs
  • Renal – kidneys, bladder, ureters
  • Endocrine – hormone producing glands
levels of structural organization
Levels of Structural Organization
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Organelles
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Systems
  • Organism
  • Building blocks of all matter
  • Atoms important to life:
    • Carbon
    • Oxygen
    • Hydrogen
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Sulfur
    • Potassium
    • Calcium
    • Iron
levels of structural organization1
Levels of Structural Organization
  • Molecules
    • Chemical combinations of 2 or more atoms
  • Examples of important molecules for life
    • Proteins
    • Carbohydrates
    • Fats
    • Nucleic acids
    • Vitamins
levels of structural organization cell
Levels of Structural OrganizationCell
  • Cells are the basic structural units of life
  • Different cells have different structures
  • They perform different functions
  • Specialized structures within cells are organelles
levels of structural organization2
Levels of Structural Organization
  • Tissues
    • Four basic types of tissues
      • Epithelial
      • Muscle
      • Connective
      • Nervous
  • Each cell within a tissue has a specific funtion
    • For example, parietal cells in the stomach epithelium produce HCl, goblet cells produce mucous and chief cells produce a digestive enzyme called pepsin
  • Structures composed of two or more tissue types
  • Have specific functions in the body
  • Have specific and recognizable shapes
  • Examples: heart, lungs, brain, kidneys, liver, stomach, spleen
organ systems
Organ Systems
  • Several organs working together for a common purpose
  • Example: digestive system includes many organs such as stomach, liver, etc.. Ecah with its own function
characteristics of life1
Characteristics of Life
  • Movement
  • Responsiveness
  • Growth
  • Reproduction
  • Respiration
  • Digestion
  • Absorption
  • Circulation
  • Assimilation
  • Excretion
characteristics of life2
Characteristics of Life
  • Movement
    • Ability to propel oneself
    • Manipulates external environment
    • Occurs voluntarily by allowing movement of body fluids throughout the body
characteristics of life3
Characteristics of Life
  • Responsiveness
    • Ability to respond to stimuli
    • Examples: organism moves away from danger or moves toward prey
characteristics of life4
Characteristics of Life
  • Growth
    • Increases in size, volume and number of cells
    • Cell construction must exceed cell destruction
characteristics of life5
Characteristics of Life
  • Reproduction (sexual or asexual)
    • Give rise to a progeny/off spring/ new organism
    • Cells must be able to reproduce to aid body in growth and repair
characteristics of life6
Characteristics of Life
  • Respiration
    • Process of making ATP (energy) through the metabolism of nutrients
    • Oxygen is taken up
    • Carbon dioxide is released
characteristics of life7
Characteristics of Life
  • Digestion
    • Enables body to break down foods into simpler forms to be absorbed into blood for delivery to cells
characteristics of life8
Characteristics of Life
  • Absorption
    • Passage of digested materials into blood stream, through membranes of the digestive tract.
characteristics of life9
Characteristics of Life
  • Circulation
    • Movement of substances throughout the body
    • Substances travel via blood, lymph and other body fluids
characteristics of life10
Characteristics of Life
  • Assimilation
    • Includes breaking down complex to simple
    • Involves the digestive, respiratory, circulatory and lymphatic system
characteristics of life11
Characteristics of Life
  • Excretion
    • Removal of wastes after digestion and metabolism
    • Examples: CO2, fecal matter, urine,
survival needs of an organism
Survival Needs of an Organism
  • Nutrients
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Fats
    • Vitamins
survival needs of an organism1
Survival Needs of an Organism
  • Oxygen
    • Used for metabolism and other chemical reactions
    • 20% of the air we breathe
  • Water
    • 60 – 80% of body weight
    • Most abundant chemical substance in body – must be regulated
survival needs of an organism2
Survival Needs of an Organism
  • Body Temperature
    • 37° C or 98.6° F
    • As body temperature drops, so does metabolic rate (but if outside temperature drops, body up regulates metabolism to produce more heat)
  • Atmospheric Pressure
    • External force of the atmosphere on the body
  • The body’s ability to maintain a constant and stable internal environment
    • Sweating when hot
    • Insulin when blood sugar is high/glucagon when it is low
    • Kidneys maintain water levels in body
body systems1
Body Systems
  • Integumentary
  • Skeletal
  • Muscular
  • Nervous
  • Endocrine
  • Cardiovascular
  • Lymphatic and Immune
  • Respiratory
  • Digestive
  • Urinary
  • Reproductive
  • Skin and structures such as hair, nails, and sweat and oil glands
  • Functions:
    • Maintenance of body temperature
    • Protection
    • Elimination of some wastes
    • Production of vitamin D
    • Stimuli receptor
  • All bones, associated cartilage, ligaments and joints
  • Functions:
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Movement
    • Blood cell production (hemopoiesis)
    • Mineral storage
  • Skeletal muscle tissue
  • Functions:
    • Movement
    • Maintains body posture
    • Produces heat
  • Brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors
  • Functions:
    • Body control by:
      • Detecting nerve impulses (action potential)
      • Interpreting changes
      • Acting upon changes
  • Includes all hormone producing glands, such as pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, ovaries, testes, etc.
  • Functions:
    • Controls body activities through the release of hormones into blood stream – these hormones target distant cells
  • Blood, heart, and blood vessels
  • Functions:
    • Distributes oxygen and nutrients to cells
    • Carries CO2 and wastes away from cells
    • Helps maintain acid-base balance
    • Protects against disease
    • Clot formation
    • Regulates body temperature
lymphatic and immune
Lymphatic and Immune
  • Lymph, lymphatic vessels, and structure such as lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, thymus gland
  • Functions:
    • Filter body fluids (interstitial)
    • Help protect against disease
  • Lungs and other passageways
  • Functions:
    • Supplies O2
    • Eliminates CO2
    • Helps regulate acid-base balance
    • Produces vocal sounds
  • Associated organs: salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and G.I tract
  • Functions:
    • Physical and chemical breakdown of foods
    • Absorption of nutrients
    • Eliminates solid materials
  • Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
  • Functions:
    • Regulates volume and chemical composition of blood
    • Eliminates wastes
    • Regulated fluid and electrolyte balance
    • Regulates acid-base and calcium balance
    • Regulates red blood cell production (hormone- erythropoietin)
  • Testes, ovaries, Fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus, epididymus, vas deferens, penis, vagina
  • Functions:
    • Production of gametes (sex cells)
    • Combining of gametes from different organism
    • Gestation and birth of offspring
body segments
Body Segments
  • The human body is divided into 2 distinct segments:
    • The axial portion which comprises of the head, neck and trunk
    • The appendicular portion which comprises of the upper limbs (arms) and lower limbs (legs)
body cavities
Body Cavities
  • The axial portion contains 2 cavities or hollow area
    • The dorsal cavity which is made up of:
      • Cranial cavity – contains brain
      • vertebral cavity – passes through the vertebrae and contains spinal cord
    • The Ventral cavity which is further divided into:
      • The thoracic cavity, separated by the mediastinum – contains heart, lungs
      • The abdominopelvic cavity which contains:
        • The abdominal cavity – contains digestive organs
        • The pelvic cavity – contains gonads, bladder, rectum
body cavities1
Body Cavities

The thoracic cavity is divided into 2 sides by the mediastinum. The lungs are in the 2 pleural cavities and the heart is in the pericardial cavity within the mediastinum

The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm

anatomical position
Anatomical Position
  • Body erect
  • Feet together
  • Arms hanging at side
  • Palms facing forward
directional terms
Directional Terms
  • Superior
  • Inferior
  • Anterior
  • Posterior
  • Medial
  • Lateral
  • Intermediate
  • proximal
  • Ipsilateral
  • Contralateral
  • Distal
  • Superficial
  • Deep
  • Parietal
  • visceral
  • Towards the head
  • Upper part of the structure
  • Above
  • Examples:
    • Forehead is superior to the nose
    • Lips are superior to the chin
    • Heart is superior to the liver
  • Away from the head
  • Towards the lower region of structure or body
  • Examples:
    • The navel is inferior to the ribs
    • The knee is inferior to the hip
    • The stomach is inferior to the lungs
  • Towards the front
  • In front of
  • Examples:
    • The breast bone is anterior to the spine
    • The incisors are anterior to the molars
    • The sternum is anterior to the heart
  • Toward or at the back
  • Behind
  • Examples:
    • The heart is posterior to the sternum
    • The molars are posterior to the incisors
    • The esophagus is posterior to the trachea
  • Towards the midline
  • The inner side of a structure
  • Examples:
    • The head is medial to the arm
    • The ulna is on the medial side of the arm (anatomical position)
  • Away from the midline
  • Towards the side
  • Examples:
    • The eyes are lateral to the bridge of the nose
    • The lungs are lateral to the heart
  • Between a more medial and more lateral structure
  • Examples:
    • The collar bone is intermediate to the breast bone and the shoulder
    • The ring finger is intermediate to the pinky and middle finger
  • Close to a point of origin or point of attachment
  • Sides next to each other
  • Examples:
    • The elbow is proximal to the wrist (i.e. the elbow is closer to the shoulder than is the wrist)
    • The humerus is proximal to the radius
  • On the same side of the body
  • Examples:
    • The right ring finger is ipsilateral to the right middle and index fingers
  • On the opposite side of the body
  • Example:
    • The ascending and descending colons of the large intestines are contralateral
  • Farthest from the origin
  • Examples:
    • The knee is distal to the thigh
    • The wrist is distal to the shoulder
    • The phalanges are distal to the carpels (wrist bones)
  • Towards the surface
  • Examples:
    • The skin is superficial to the skeleton
    • Muscles of the thoracic wall are superficial to the lungs
  • More internal
  • Examples:
    • The heart is deep in relation to the skin
    • Nasal sinuses are deep in relation to the nose
  • Pertaining to the outer wall of a body cavity
  • Examples:
    • The parietal pleura forms the outer layer of the pleural sacs that surround the lungs
  • Pertaining to the covering of an organ within the ventral body cavity
  • Examples:
    • The visceral pleura forms the inner layer of the pleural sacs and covers the external surface of the lungs
body planes1
Body Planes
  • Imaginary lines used to divide the body into sections
    • Sagittal
    • Mid-sagittal
    • Frontal
    • Transverse
    • Oblique
  • Vertical plane
  • Lengthwise
  • Longitudinal
  • Divides the body into right and left portions
  • Midline
  • Divides the body into equal right and left portions
  • Right angles to the sagittal plane
  • Divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
  • Divides the body into superior and inferior portions
  • An oblique plane passes at an angle between transverse and frontal planes or transverse and Sagittal planes