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Chapter 16

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  1. Chapter 16 Section 2

  2. THE MAYAN

  3. PETEN • Mayan word for “flat region” • present-day Guatemala • dense forests • swamps • sinkholes • year-round water source • connected huge system of underground rivers and streams • Mayan wells

  4. The Maya civilization encompassed all of the Yucatan Peninsula in present-day Mexico and parts of present-day Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador.

  5. MAYAN GOVERNMENT • organized government • city-states • independent state made up of a city and the surrounding land and villages • often fought with each other • rulers supplied for building projects • leadership • passed from one king to the next • military force

  6. Ruins of Mayan City Served as an indication of the skill and artistry of their architects.

  7. MAYAN RULERS • descended from sun • right to rule as god-kings • expected every person to serve them • example: build huge monuments to honor ruler • taught subjects to please gods • human sacrifice • gods gave rain (life-giving fluid) to keep humans strong • humans given blood (life-giving fluid) to keep gods strong

  8. CHAC • god of rain and sunlight • believed to live in waters below sinkholes • captives more valuable than land • offered during drought • thrown into watery pits to earn favor

  9. RELIGION • core of Mayan life • gods controlled everything • pyramid with temple on top towered cities • priests • claimed to know what gods wanted • set up a strict class system

  10. Quenzacoatl Pyramid (located in Teotihuacan)

  11. MAYAN WOMEN • royal Mayan women • played large role • married into distant city-states royal families • strengthened trade • formed alliances • political agreements to work together

  12. MAYAN SCIENCE AND WRITING • astronomy • belief = god revealed plans through movement of sun, moon, and stars • 365-day calendar • counting based on 20 • written language - system of hieroglyphics • symbols represented sounds, words, or ideas • invented to record numbers and dates • only nobles could read until collapse • recently, scholars unlocked stories/language

  13. MAYAN MATH

  14. MAYAN ALPHABET

  15. MAYAN COLLAPSE For reasons still unknown, the Maya civilization collapsed in about AD 900.

  16. THE AZTEC

  17. AZTEC GOVERNMENT • warlike nomads • sun god – Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent) • promised they would know their new home • when an eagle “screams and spreads its wings, and eats… the serpent.” • sacrificed a local princess to one of their gods • settled in Valley of Mexico • swampy island of Lake Texcoco

  18. BUILDING A CITY • priest, speaking for gods, told Aztecs to build a great city • built bridges • dug soil from bottom of lake • built floating gardens • piled soil on rafts • anchored to bottom of lake • city called Tenochtitlan • means “place of the prickly pear cactus”

  19. AZTEC RULERS • strong kings • claimed descent from gods • council of warriors, priests, and nobles pick king from royal family • usually son of last king (but not always) • expected to prove themselves by leading troops into battle

  20. AZTEC SOCIETY • king at top • nobles • commoners • largest group • farmers, artisans, and traders • could join noble class through act of bravery • if soldier dies, children receive land and noble rank • unskilled laborers • enslaved people

  21. AFTERLIFE • Aztec saw death as honorable • those worth… • soldiers who die in battle • captives who gave lives in sacrifice • women who die in childbirth • others went to “Land of the Dead” • lowest level of the underworld

  22. AZTEC CHILDREN’S FUTURE • learn • about glories of war at early age • their duties as an Aztec • boys • “You must understand that your home is not here where you have been born, for you are a warrior!” • girls • “As the heart stays in the body, so you must stay in the house.”

  23. TENOCHTITLAN • huge pyramid • built to honor the gods • known as the Great Temple • 135 ft high and more than 100 steps • thousands of victims sacrificed to gods

  24. THE INCAN

  25. PACHACAMAC • highest Incan god • “Lord of the Earth” • blamed for earthquakes • lost his temper, earth shakes

  26. PACHACUTI • means “Earthshaker” • greatest Incan leader • with son, Topa, built largest ancient empire in Americas • stretched 2,500 miles north to south • set up a strong central government • let local rulers stay in power • ensured loyalty, took sons to Cuzco (capital) for training

  27. INCAN SOCIETY • royal couple • rulers and Coyas (wives) on top • head priest and commander of army • regional army leaders • temple priests, army commanders, and skilled workers (musicians, artisans, and accountants) • farmers, herders, and ordinary soldiers

  28. further divided society into twelve job categories • every man, woman, and child over five years of age worked • young girls were babysitters • young boys chased birds from gardens

  29. INCAN CULTURE • honored gods with human sacrifices • only in times of trouble (earthquakes, etc) • children thought more pure than adults • worshiped sacrificed children as gods • built large works of stone • no system of writing • no wheels • no iron tools • yet, built Machu Picchu • retreat for kings

  30. QUIPU • rope with knotted cords of different colors • each knot represented a number or item • used for keeping records

  31. SKILLED ENGINEERS • fit stones tightly • no mortar • stone blocks could slide up and down without collapsing • structures withstood earthquakes