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Marine Mammals (part 2)

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  1. Marine Mammals (part 2) photos: Florida FWC, NOAA

  2. Whales and Dolphins • Phylum Chordata • Subphylum Vertebrata • Class Mammalia • Order Cetacea • Suborder Mysticeti (baleen whales) • Suborder Odontoceti (toothed whales, dolphins)

  3. Cetaceans • Entirely aquatic life • All marine except 5 species of freshwater dolphins • Streamlined, fish-like body (convergent evolution)

  4. Cetaceans • Dorsal fin • 2 flippers • Tail – 2 flukes, horizontal • Blowhole – nostril(s) on top of head for breathing air

  5. Cetaceans ← 2 blowholes in baleen whales (blue whale) NOAA 1 blowhole in toothed whales → (bottlenose dolphin)

  6. Cetaceans • Rear limbs in embryos, fail to develop • Blubber for insulation, buoyancy • Almost completely hairless • Most closely related to hippos

  7. Baleen Whales • Baleen • Flexible, fibrous plates • Not teeth, but keratin (like hair, nails) NOAA

  8. Baleen Whales • Largest animals on earth • Eat: • Plankton (krill, copepods) • Small fish (herring, mackerel) • Benthic amphipods

  9. Baleen Whales • Blue whale • Largest animal ever • 25 ft, 3 tons at birth • Up to 110 ft, 200 tons • Heart = 0.5 tons • Blood = 5000 gallons • Tongue = 3 tons • Eat 4+ tons of krill/day 1 ton = 2000 lbs http://oregonstate.edu/groups/marinemammal/images/bluebeagle2a.jpg http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/files/2008/06/image_krill.jpg http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/content/kingdom-of-the-blue-whale-3302/blue-whale-facts/#/compare/length

  10. Baleen Whales Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) http://www.whale-info.com/images/blue_whale.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/14/BlueWhaleSkeleton.jpg

  11. Baleen Whales Other rorquals NOAA Fin (Balaenoptera physalus) Sei (Balaenoptera borealis) NOAA Minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)

  12. Baleen Whales Humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) photos: NOAA

  13. Baleen Whales → Northern Right (Eubalaena glacialis) → NOAA Bowhead (Balaena mysticetus) →

  14. Baleen Whales • Seek fish schools, plankton swarms • Some concentrate and trap the food in bubble nets (humpback) NOAA http://physics.bu.edu/neppsr/PICS-2006/Whales/WhaleW_bubbleNet.jpg http://www.myfourthirds.com/files/0734/1Two_Humpbacks.jpg

  15. Baleen Whales • Gulp, side feeding (rorquals: blue, fin, sei, minke) • Skimming (right, bowhead) • Bottom feeding (gray) http://www.whalecenter.org/sightings/images/rightwhale11_04.jpg http://www.arkive.org/media/E9/E9E81C14-0462-44DF-ACF0-D9A98C782F99/Presentation.Large/photo.jpg http://oregonstate.edu/groups/marinemammal/images/MPBlueSurfPleats.jpg http://oregonstate.edu/groups/marinemammal/images/Grey%20underwater2.jpg

  16. Baleen Whales • Migrations – cold waters to feed, warm waters to breed

  17. Toothed Whales • Predators • Use teeth to catch prey: • Fish • Squid • Seals, other whales (orcas) • Tear or swallow whole (don’t chew)

  18. Baleen vs. Toothed Whales NOAA http://www.acsonline.org/merchandise/booksPosters/images/poster-comparisonChart-lg.jpg

  19. Toothed Whales • Largest – sperm whale (“Moby Dick”) • Dive to over 7000 ft, stay over an hour NOAA

  20. Toothed Whales • Hunt giant deep-sea squid, fish http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2009/10/28/article-1223501-06FDA23C000005DC-677_634x444_popup.jpg

  21. Beluga Whales NOAA http://www.sooke.org/tourism-photo-file/animals/belugabubble5.jpg

  22. Narwhals • Same family as belugas, also live in Arctic • Have only 2 teeth – one becomes spiral tusk http://www.narwhal.info/cgi-bin/displayit2.cgi/images/Photos

  23. Killer Whales (Orcas) NOAA NOAA NOAA http://www.mersea.com/Resident%20Orca.jpg

  24. Pilot Whales NOAA NOAA http://www.mammalogy.org/mil_images/images/mid/930.jpg http://users.wsg.net/bedrosian/images/PilotWhale.jpg

  25. Dolphins and Porpoises NOAA • Both are small toothed whales • Names sometimes used interchangeably • Porpoise – Family Phocoenidae, blunt-nosed, spade-shaped teeth • Dolphin – Family Delphinidae, beaked snout, pointed teeth

  26. Dolphins NOAA Bottlenose Spotted NOAA Dusky Striped http://www.teara.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/B60F305D-F498-4F26-A8AE-C6FD23C028D3/139512/p4672pc.jpg http://gallery.photo.net/photo/1813171-md.jpg

  27. Dolphins Indo-Pacific Humpbacked Atlantic White-Sided NOAA Peale’s Tucuxi (Amazon and coastal Brazil) photos: http://csiwhalesalive.org/csigallery.html

  28. Baleen vs. Toothed Whales

  29. Long Island Cetaceans • Fin – most common baleen whale to LI • Nearshore (1 mi.) in winter • Farther (30 mi.) in spring, summer • Farthest (shelf edge) in fall • Humpback – sometimes shallow • Northern Right • Minke • Sei http://www.cresli.org/cresli/images/finmap.jpg

  30. Long Island Cetaceans Humpback whale – 30 ft long, 13 tons East Hampton, April 6-9, 2010 http://cdn.newsday.com/polopoly_fs/1.1849475.1270648954!/image/2958831293.jpg_gen/derivatives/display_600/2958831293.jpg http://cdn.newsday.com/polopoly_fs/1.1854723.1270909443!/image/4150419117.JPG_gen/derivatives/display_600/4150419117.JPG

  31. Long Island Cetaceans Humpback whale – 20 ft long New York Harbor, April 8-10, 2009 http://assets.nydailynews.com/img/2009/04/10/alg_humpback.jpg http://www.newsday.com/media/photo/2009-04/46100856.jpg

  32. Long Island Cetaceans • Sperm whale • Pilot whale • Harbor porpoise • NW Creek, near Sag Harbor: • Common dolphins, Jan. 2007 (8 survived, 12 died) • Atlantic white-sided, Sep. 2007 (3, 1 died?) Google Maps http://www.riverheadfoundation.org/images/uploads/Dd_creek2.jpg

  33. Swimming and Diving • Blue and killer whales – up to 30 mph • Dolphins bow-riding – up to 40 mph NOAA NOAA http://csiwhalesalive.org/csigallery.html

  34. Swimming and Diving • Water vapor in warm breath – spout NOAA NOAA

  35. Swimming and Diving • Rapid breaths (empty and refill lungs in seconds) • Efficient O2 exchange (90% vs. 20% in humans) Oxygen storage: • High blood volume • High conc. red blood cells • High conc. hemoglobin • Muscles rich in myoglobin • Heart rate slows • Blood flow to non-essential areas reduced • Lungs colapse, exhale to prevent “bends”

  36. Echolocation • Excellent vision, but also have sixth sense (sonar) • High frequency clicks for close range • Low frequency sounds for long range NOAA

  37. Vocalization • Sound travels 5 times faster in water than air • Low frequency calls/songs travel miles • Some sounds common to species, others specific to individals and pods • Used for breeding (males do the singing), feeding, alarm, maintaining contact

  38. Intelligence http://home.onemain.com/~dk1008206/html/dolph1-1.gif

  39. Behavior • Breaching • Spying • Assisting injured • Stranding

  40. Reproduction http://www.spawar.navy.mil/sandiego/technology/mammals/Images/research/breed_6.jpg

  41. Hunting

  42. Hunting • Long Island whaling: • Peaked in 1840’s • Sag Harbor – largest port (60 ships) • Also Greenport, Cold Spring Harbor Google Maps

  43. Hunting

  44. Other Perils http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/39154000/jpg/_39154790_net_bbc_203.jpg