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If there is no competition. Positioning Strategy is not needed. The more competitive, the greater the need for Positioning Strategy in the market served. POSITIONING. Definition :. Is the act of designing the company’s offer and image so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the

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If there is no competition

Positioning Strategy is not needed

The more competitive, the greater the need

for Positioning Strategy in the market served

POSITIONING

Definition :

Is the act of designing the company’s offer and image

so that it occupies a distinct and valued place in the

target customers’ mind

(P. Kotler)

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 01


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Positioning,

is “key issue” for New-Product Development and managing

existing products being marketed.

Product Positioning,

  • is “marketing tools” for answering questions :

  • How to position a product, relatively against other products ?

  • How different a product compare to others ?

Mkt. Strat/Positioning/C.Merle Crawford pp.243-253/RP - 02


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Product

Positioning

Buyers’ Perspective

Marketer’s Perspective

Showing or Explaining

differences against other products

Have “perceived product position”

in their mind

If the marketer’s effort is succeed, both perspectives are the same

Mkt. Strat/Positioning/C.Merle Crawford pp.243-253/RP - 03


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?

Marketing Manager

must “take action” first !

Prospect customer,

do not have “positioning”

of New-Product in their mind !

Mkt. Strat/Positioning/C.Merle Crawford pp.243-253/RP - 04


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Recognizing :

Buyers have different / varied needs

(Levitt cs)

Every products/services can be differentiated

(Dermot Dunphy, CEO of Sealed Air Corp.)

Will attracted toward different offers

But keep in mind, that :

  • Not all Brand differences, are meaningful or worthwhile

  • Not every difference is a “differentiator”

  • Each difference has the potential to create company costs

  • Each difference has the potential to create customer benefits

Company must carefully select the ways in which it will distinguish

itself from competitors

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 05


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Differentiation Criteria :

  • Important

    Delivers a highly valued benefit to a sufficient number of buyers

  • Distinctive

    Offered in a more distinctive way by the company

  • Superior

    Is superior to other ways to obtain the same benefit

  • Communicable

    The difference is communicable and visible to buyers

  • Preemptive

    Cannot be easily copied by competitors

  • Affordable

    Buyers can afford to pay for the difference

  • Profitable

    The company will find it profitable to introduce the difference

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 06


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3Positioning Purposes :

7Positioning Strategy :

  • Defining the product for its customers

  • Helping the customers to remember the product

  • Communicating the relevant attribute to its customers

1. Attribute Positioning

2. Benefit Positioning

3. Use/Application Positioning

4. User Positioning

5. Competitor Positioning

6. Product Category Positioning

7. Quality/Price Positioning

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 07


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New Typology for Product Positioning

Surogate Category

Surogate = Substitute

Where something substitutes for something else

Marketer do not using “features/benefits”, instead expressing

“something” about the product which make the readers or

the audience to draw their own individual conclusion

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 08


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Single-Benefit Positioning

Double-Benefit Positioning

If there are two or more firms claiming the same feature or

benefits, then the other firm may use additional feature to its

product

Triple-Benefit Positioning

Tooth Paste : white teeth - fresh breath - anti cavity

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 9


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4 Major Positioning Errors

1. Under Positioning

Didn’t put enough stress/efforts in communicating product/

brand benefits. Buyers have only a vague idea, and don’t

really sense anything special about it.

2. Over Positioning

Company puts its product/brand too “high” and/or too

narrow. Buyers don’t know that there are products/brands

they can afford.

3. Confused Positioning

Company making too many claims and/or changing the

brand’s positioning too frequent.

4. Doubtful Positioning

Buyers may find it hard to believe the brand, in view of the

product’s features, price etc.

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 10


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Differences to be Promoted in Positioning !

  • “Strengths & uniqueness” of the products/services

  • Features which can be developed quick enough

Requirement ?

Comparison Analysis of competitors’ products

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 11


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Repositioning

It’s needed when :

To change existing product/brand positioning

  • Product/brand positioning is unclear

  • The old positioning is not valid any more

MM/Mkt. Mgnt/Positioning/MM-AP-P.Kotler, Ch.12/RP - 12