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How to Evaluate and Manage Non- Biosolids Residuals. Greg Evanylo Crop & Soil Environmental Sciences Virginia Tech; Residuals Utilization and Disposal Hierarchy. By-product Properties Necessary to Evaluate Land Application Benefits and Drawbacks.

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how to evaluate and manage non biosolids residuals

How to Evaluate and Manage Non-Biosolids Residuals

Greg Evanylo

Crop & Soil Environmental Sciences

Virginia Tech;

residual by products to be evaluated
Residual By-products to be Evaluated
  • Water treatment residuals (WTR)
  • Food processing residuals (FPR)
    • Plant –based
    • Animal-based
  • Incinerator ash
water treatment residuals
Water Treatment Residuals
  • Flocculated suspended sediment and organic matter from water treatment facilities
  • Generated with additions of Al2(SO4)3 (alum), Al polymer, FeCl3 and/or lime
  • Consists largely of soil mineral, amorphous Al and Fe oxides, and organic matter
  • Low nutrient value and high P-binding medium
  • Value as a pathogen-free, low heavy metal-containing topsoil substitute and environmental P sorbent
use of wtr to bind p
Use of WTR to bind P
  • Sorption comparisons
    • 100-600 mg P/kg soil
    • 15,000-30,000 mg P/kg WTR
  • Higher P binding by fresh (amorphous) than aged (crystalline) WTR
  • Phosphorus saturationindex (PSI = [Pox]/[Alox + Feox]) can be used to calculate WTR application rates forreducing P in drainage from lowP-sorbing soils.
  • Limitations
    • High EC (15-30 dS/m) in Fe-rich WTR
    • Highly soluble C can reduce WTR P binding
food processing residuals fpr
Food Processing Residuals (FPR)
  • Incidental organic by-product generated by processing agricultural commodities
    • Feed and spent brewery grain
    • Fruit and vegetable
    • Meat and milk
  • Key compositional factors
    • N and P
    • Dissolved and suspended solids
    • Fats, oils and grease (FOG)
    • Low pollutant concentrations
pickling liquid effluent vlasic
Pickling Liquid Effluent (Vlasic)

VS=50%, C=29%, C:N=11.3

pickling liquid effluent vlasic1
Pickling Liquid Effluent (Vlasic)

SAR = Na/[(Ca + Mg)/2]0.5 = 19.4

sea watch liquid
Sea Watch Liquid

VS=71%, C=41%, C:N=4.7

sea watch liquid1
Sea Watch Liquid

Specific ion toxicity limits:

Cl=0.01%, Na=0.007%

sensient flavors
Sensient Flavors

VS=55%, C=32%, C:N=5.6

sensient flavors1
Sensient Flavors

SAR = Na/[(Ca + Mg)/2]0.5 = 42

managing fog
Managing FOG
  • Particularly high in meat and poultry processing sludges
  • Can clog soil and leaf pores
  • Surface application w/o incorporation can result in odor problems
  • Recommend limiting the FOG application rate to 1.5% of soil weight (~30,000 lbs/acre) annually
sludge incinerator ash
Sludge Incinerator Ash

Soil Screening Levels (SSLs):

As=0.4, Cd=78, Cr=235, Mn=3600

references for evaluating and managing non biosolids residuals
References for Evaluating and Managing Non-biosolids Residuals
  • Brandt, R.C. and K.S. Martin. 1996. The food processing residual management manual. Natural Resource, Agriculture and Engineering Service (NRAES). Ithaca, NY. NRAES-92.
  • J.F. Power and W.A. Dick (Editors). 2000. Land application of agricultural, industrial, and municipal by-products. SSSA Book Series No. 6. Soil Science Society of America, Inc. Madison, WI.