cellular catabolism the electron transport chain oxidative phosphorylation
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Cellular Catabolism The Electron Transport Chain & Oxidative Phosphorylation

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Cellular Catabolism The Electron Transport Chain & Oxidative Phosphorylation. Packet #28 Chapter #9. Summary Thus Far…. At the end of the Krebs Cycle, and before the cell makes more ATP at the electron transport chain, produced so far is… 2 NET ATP Glycolysis 2 GTP Kreb’s Cycle

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summary thus far
Summary Thus Far…
  • At the end of the Krebs Cycle, and before the cell makes more ATP at the electron transport chain, produced so far is…
    • 2 NET ATP
      • Glycolysis
    • 2 GTP
      • Kreb’s Cycle
      • Later changed to ATP
    • 2 FADH
      • Kreb’s Cycle
    • 10 NADH
      • 2 from Glycolysis
        • See upcoming slides.
      • 2 as pyruvate is changed to ACoA
      • 6 from the Kreb’s Cycle
    • 6 CO2
      • 4 from the Kreb’s Cycle
      • 2 as pyruvate is changed to ACoA
oxidative phosphorylation vs chemiosmosis
Oxidative Phosphorylation vs. Chemiosmosis
  • Oxidative Phosphorylation
    • Process in mitochondria in which ATP formation is driven by the transfer of electrons from food molecules to oxygen.
      • The ultimate destination of the electrons, that originated with the food molecule (glucose), is oxygen.
        • This oxygen atom is combined with H+ ions to make H2O.
          • More to come later
oxidative phosphorylation vs chemiosmosis ii
Oxidative Phosphorylation vs. Chemiosmosis II
  • Chemiosmosis
    • Also known as chemiosmotic coupling
    • This is the mechanism in which a gradient of hydrogen ions (a pH gradient), across the inner mitochondria membrane, is used to drive an energy requiring process.
      • Examples
        • ATP production at the electron transport chain
        • The transport of a molecule across a membrane.
          • Flashback to previous packet.
            • Co-transport
oxidative phosphorylation vs chemiosmosis iii
Oxidative Phosphorylation vs. Chemiosmosis III
  • What is the connection between Oxidative Phosphorylation and Chemiosmosis?
    • In order for oxidative phosphorylation to occur, chemiosmosisMUST be part of the process.
goal of the electron transport chain i
Goal of the Electron Transport Chain I
  • The function of the electron transport chain is to convert all of the previously made NADH and FADH into ATP.
    • This happens via oxidative phosphorylation.
  • The electron transport chain is located in the inner membrane of the mitochondria and is composed of 5 complexes
    • Electron carriers and ATP synthase.
  • The complexes, of the electron transport chain, are used to produce large amounts of ATP
yields of atp
Yields of ATP
  • 1 FADH produces 2 ATP’s
  • 1 NADH produces 3 ATP’s
    • However, one must be mindful of what happens to the NADH entering into the mitochondria after glycolysis has occurred.
nadh glycolysis the electron transport chain
NADH, Glycolysis & The Electron Transport Chain
  • Remember that glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of the cell.
    • The NADH produced is in the cytosol of the cell.
    • The NADH produced in the cytosol of the cell must enter the mitochondria via shuttles.
nadh glycolysis the electron transport chain ii
NADH, Glycolysis & The Electron Transport Chain II
  • There are TWO types of shuttles used for moving the NADH produced in the cytosol into the mitochondria matrix.
    • Glycerophosphate shuttle
      • Changes NADH into FADH as it transported into the mitochondria
    • Malate-aspartate shuttle
      • NADH remains as NADH as it transported into the mitochondria
atp synthase
ATP Synthase
  • As the hydrogen ions, resulting from the change of NADH to NAD+, are pumped across ATP synthase (Complex #5), ADP & P are changed into ATP.
calculating the total amount of atp s per glucose molecule1
Calculating the Total Amount of ATP’s per Glucose Molecule
  • Glycolysis
    • 2 net ATP
      • substrate level phosphorylation—chemical reactions
    • 4-6 ATP (2 NADH) (Shuttles)
  • Pyruvate to ACOA
    • 6 ATP (2 NADH)
  • Krebs Cycle
    • 2 ATP
      • From 2 GTP’s
    • 18 ATP (6 NADH)
    • 4 ATP (2 FADH)
  • In the end we have a total of 36-38 net ATPs generated.
drugs that impact the production of atp at the electron transport chain
Drugs That Impact the Production of ATP at the Electron Transport Chain
  • Oligomycin
    • Drug that binds to the stalk of ATP synthase and closes the H channel
  • 2, 4-dinitrophenol
    • This is an uncoupler
    • These increase the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane to protons
    • Causes electron transport to proceed at a rapid rate without the establishment of a gradient
    • The energy produced by the transport of electrons is released as heat rather than being used to synthesize ATP
      • Fever
  • Aspirin is an uncoupler
    • This is what explains fevers with overdoses
regulation of glycolysis cell respiration1
Regulation of Glycolysis/Cell Respiration
  • Regulation is via allosteric activation or inhibition or via the phosphorylation or dephosphorylation of rate-limiting enzymes.
  • Phosphofructokinase is inhibited by ATP and activated by AMP
    • Enzyme used to make fructose 1, 6 bisphosphate
  • Inhibition by citrate
    • First intermediate of the Kreb’s Cycle
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