The Skilled Reader (Updated Edition) by D. J. Henry

1 / 21

# The Skilled Reader (Updated Edition) by D. J. Henry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

##### The Skilled Reader (Updated Edition) by D. J. Henry

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
##### Presentation Transcript

1. The Skilled Reader(Updated Edition)by D. J. Henry Chapter 11: Inferences PowerPoint Presentation by Gretchen Starks-Martin St. Cloud State University, MN © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

2. Inferences • An inference is an unstated idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage. • A valid inference is a logical conclusion based on evidence. • What emotions can you infer from this photo? © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

3. What can you infer from this passage? (Inferences and Reading) Jamul and Shanteel sat across from each other in a corner booth in the restaurant. For most of the meal, Jamul did not smile, and despite Shanteel’s efforts to make conversation, he barely spoke to her. Halfway through the meal, Jamul threw down his napkin and walked away without a backward look. a. Jamul and Shanteel are related to each other. b. Jamul and Shanteel are angry at each other. c. Jamul is unhappy with Shanteel. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

4. What can you infer from this passage? Jamul and Shanteel sat across from each other in a corner booth in the restaurant. For most of the meal, Jamul did not smile, and despite Shanteel’s efforts to make conversation, he barely spoke to her. Halfway through the meal, Jamul threw down his napkin and walked away without a backward look. a. Jamul and Shanteel are related to each other. b. Jamul and Shanteel are angry at each other. c. Jamul is unhappy with Shanteel. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

5. Avoiding Invalid Conclusions • An invalid conclusion is a false inference that is not based on the details, facts, or reasonable thinking. • The VALID approach consists of 5 steps in thinking: • Verify and value the facts. • Assess prior knowledge. • Learn from the text. • Investigate for bias. • Detect contradictions. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

6. Step 1: Verify and Value the Facts The state and federal governments set the ages at which you could get your driver’s license, drink alcohol, and vote. Before you could get a job, the federal government had to give you a SS#. And you have been paying Social Security taxes every month in which you have been employed. If you worked a low-paying job, your starting wages were set by state and federal minimum-wage laws. What are the two inferences supported by the facts in the paragraph? ___State and federal governments are unfair. ___State and federal governments affect daily life. ___Governments have influence over people. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

7. Verify and Value the Facts The state and federal governments set the ages at which you could get your driver’s license, drink alcohol, and vote. Before you could get a job, the federal government had to give you a SS#. And you have been paying Social Security taxes every month in which you have been employed. If you worked a low-paying job, your starting wages were set by state and federal minimum-wage laws. What are the two inferences supported by the facts in the paragraph? ___State and federal governments are unfair. _X_State and federal governments affect daily life. _X_Governments have influence over people. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

8. Step 2: Assess Prior Knowledge What are two inferences supported by the details in the picture based on your prior knowledge? ___This is a low-income neighborhood. ___This is an upper-middle-class neighborhood. ___This is a high-crime area. ___Residents take pride in their neighborhood. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

9. Assess Prior Knowledge What are two inferences supported by the details in the picture? ___This is a low-income neighborhood. _X_This is an upper-middle-class neighborhood. ___This is a high-crime area. _X_Residents take pride in their neighborhood. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

10. Step 3: Learn from the Text • You use inferences when you use context clues. • Janet’s sense of smell told her that Todd had been with another woman, for he reeked of perfume. Reeked means: a. stunk b. shined c. trembled © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

11. Step 4: Investigate for Bias Disparaging statements such as “I’m a failure” are destructive. They imply that failure is in you and will always be in you. Instead, use statements that refer to the here and now. In addition, describe actions and reasons for your feelings. Such statements might look like this: “I feel like a failure right now; I’ve erased this computer file three times today.” “I felt like a failure when I couldn’t think of that formula.” What inferences are invalid due to bias? ___The word disparaging means” degrading.” ___Once we fail, we are most likely always going to fail. ___We often believe the statements we made about ourselves. ___You should keep criticisms about yourself general. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

12. Step 4: Investigate for Bias Disparaging statements such as “I’m a failure” are destructive. They imply that failure is in you and will always be in you. Instead, use statements that refer to the here and now. In addition, describe actions and reasons for your feelings. Such statements might look like this: “I feel like a failure right now; I’ve erased this computer file three times today.” “I felt like a failure when I couldn’t think of that formula.” What inferences are invalid due to bias? ___The word disparaging means” degrading.” _X_Once we fail, we are most likely always going to fail. ___ We often believe the statements we made about ourselves. _X_You should keep criticisms about yourself general. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

13. Step 5: Detect Contradictions What would be your explanation for the following behaviors? • Making careless errors • Not sitting still • Talking excessively • Always interrupting • Being forgetful © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

14. Step 5: Detect Contradictions What would be your explanation for the following behaviors? • Making careless errors • Not sitting still • Talking excessively • Always interrupting • Being forgetful This is an ADHD child, not a rebellious or disrespectful child. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

15. Thinking Through an Inference Step 1: Verify and Value the Facts Step 2: Assess Prior Knowledge Step 3: Learn from the Text Step 4: Investigate for Bias Step 5: Detect Contradictions This cat is feeling: a. frightened or threatened b. content c. loving d. hungry © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

16. What are the Correct Inferences? Every three years the city council looks at the local cable TV companies and grants them the right to do business in the city limits. New cable companies are allowed to bid for access. The council also looks at rates and services. No new cable companies have been approved in many years. The current cable company, which is the only company allowed access, pays a healthy fee to the city every year. • The city council can help ensure fair prices for access to cable. • The review process is open and fair. • The cable company and the city council have made a deal with each other. • The current cable company charges fair rates. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

17. What are the Correct Inferences? Every three years the city council looks at the local cable TV companies and grants them the right to do business in the city limits. New cable companies are allowed to bid for access. The council also looks at rates and services. No new cable companies have been approved in many years. The current cable company, which is the only company allowed access, pays a healthy fee to the city every year. • The city council can help ensure fair prices for access to cable. • The review process is open and fair. • The cable company and the city council have made a deal with each other. • The current cable company charges fair rates. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

18. Inferences and Photos What can you infer from these photos? © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

19. Chapter Review • An inference is an unstated idea that is suggested by the facts or details in a passage. • An author implies an idea, and a reader makes an inference about the author’s meaning. • Using context clues to understand the meaning of a word is one example of making an inference. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

20. Chapter Review • The first step in making a sound inference is to verify and value the facts. • The second step is to assess prior knowledge. • The third step is to learn from the text. • The fourth step is to investigate for bias. • The fifth step is to detect contradictions. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers

21. Complete the Applications, Review Tests, and Mastery Tests for Chapter 11. © 2005 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Longman Publishers