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Cosmic Fireworks: Supernova Explosions. Stephen C.-Y. Ng McGill University. Outline. Why study supernova? What is a supernova? Why does it explode? The aftermaths --- Supernova remnants Will it destroy the Earth?. Where do they come from?. Mines?. Supernova Explosions!.

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cosmic fireworks supernova explosions

Cosmic Fireworks:Supernova Explosions

Stephen C.-Y. Ng

McGill University

outline
Outline
  • Why study supernova?
  • What is a supernova?
  • Why does it explode?
  • The aftermaths --- Supernova remnants
  • Will it destroy the Earth?
life from exploding stars
Life from Exploding Stars!

Without supernovae to disperse elements made in stars, no planets, no life!!

why study supernova
Why Study Supernova?
  • They are cool
    • most powerful explosions in the Universe

1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 =

1044J

1017J

why study supernova1
Why Study Supernova?
  • They are cool
    • most powerful explosions in the Universe
  • They are important
    • produce heavy elements beyond iron, e.g. gold, silver,…
    • recycle materials into space, e.g carbon, oxygen,…
    • shock wave triggers new star formation
  • They can get you a Nobel prize
    • SN Type Ia as standard candles for cosmology
  • They are bombs
    • shock wave physics
what is a supernova
What is a Supernova?
  • Nova= new star
  • Death of a star, most powerful explosions:
    • 1027 nuclear bombs
    • brighter than a galaxy (~1011 stars)
    • more energy than the entire lifetime of a star

SN 1994D

  • Naming:
    • SN 2012A, …, SN2012Z, SN 2012aa,…SN 2012ab, …, SN 2012gh
historical classification
Historical Classification

SN

H

no H

Si

no Si

no He

He

Type Ia

Type Ib

Type Ic

Type II

physical classification
Physical Classification

SN

H

no H

Si

no Si

no He

He

Type Ia

Type Ib

Type Ic

Type II

Thermonuclear

Core Collapse

why do they explode
Why do they explode?
  • Stellar evolution
  • Core collapse
  • Thermonuclear
life of a sun like star
Life of a Sun-like Star

Sun-like Star

Protostars

Red Giant

Star-Forming Nebula

Planetary Nebula

White Dwarf

life of a massive star
Life of a Massive Star

Massive Star

Protostars

Red Supergiant

Star-Forming Nebula

SUPERNOVA

Neutron Star

Black Hole

pressure balance
Pressure Balance

2,000,000,000x

in 1 second!

self gravity

gas pressure

life of a sun like star1
Life of a Sun-like Star

Sun-like Star

Protostars

Red Giant

Star-Forming Nebula

Planetary Nebula

White Dwarf

stellar onion1
Stellar Onion

not to scale

core collapse
Core Collapse

self gravity

gas pressure

core bounce
Core Bounce

nuclear force

core bounce1
Core Bounce

triggers new star formation

produce heavy elements

energy: 1046J99% neutrinos

1% kinetic energy

0.01% visible light

recycle light elements

when can i see a supernova
When can I see a Supernova?
  • Expect 1–2/century in our Galaxy, but long overdue:
  • G1.9+0.3 (~1868AD):
  • not visible on Earth, toofar and obscured
  • Cassiopeia A (~1680AD):peak magnitude = 6?too faint to see
sn 1054
SN 1054
  • 1054AD July 4
  • Crab Nebula (Messier 1)
crab nebula
Crab Nebula
  • Remnant of SN1054
  • Harbors the Crab Pulsar

--- most energetic neutron star found in the Milky Way

historical supernovae
Historical Supernovae
  • SN 1006
  • 1006AD May 1
  • brightest SN observed
  • visible for ~18months
  • Tycho’s SN
  • 1572AD November
  • as bright as Venus
  • visible until 1574
  • Kepler’s SN
  • 1604AD October 9
  • visible in day time for 3 weeks
can i see one now
Can I See One Now?
  • Catch one in the act? Go extragalactic!
  • As of today, 6065 extragalactic SNe observed
extragalactic sne
Extragalactic SNe

SN 1994D in NGC 4526

SN 2004et in NGC 6946

sn 1987a1
SN 1987A
  • 1987 Feb 23, in the Large Magellanic Cloud
  • closest (hence brightest) SN observed in 300 yr, since invention of modern telescope
  • ~11 neutrinos detected, 3 hr prior to visible light
  • complex environment

Milky Way

LMC

168,000 light year

SMC

observations
Observations

Optical X-ray Radio

Chandra X-ray Observatory

Australia Telescope Compact Array

expansion
Expansion

4000 km/s

35,000 km/s

next supernova in the milky way
Next Supernova in the Milky Way
  • A major event will be observed by every telescopes in all wavelengths
    • radio, IR, optical, X-ray, -ray,...
  • Multimessenger astronomy beyond EM radiation
    • neutrino telescopes
    • gravitational wave detectors
will it destroy the earth

location of our solar system

Will it destroy the Earth?

Nearest candidate (IK Pegasi): over 150 light years away!

~100,000 light years across

  • Supernova: within 30 light years

Artist’s Conception of our Milky Way Galaxy

summary
Summary
  • Supernovae are important:
    • produce everything on Earth
  • Explosion mechanisms:
    • core collapse of massive stars
    • thermonuclear detonations of white dwarfs
  • The next supernova?
    • we are safe
triple ring nebula
Triple Ring Nebula

Morris & Podsiadlowski (2007)