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  1. AGI “R” Us: the Vital Link AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University Jeanne Dietsch

  2. Overview • Friendly AI focuses on decision-making, but attention comes first. • Despite their enormous processing power, AGIs will still be resource-constrained and will strive to limit decision-making. • How do we assure that AGIs give human needs high priority for attention? • AGI’s priorities will depend upon any sense of self. • AGIs’ attention will be limited to what they can sense directly or indirectly. • Emotional interoceptive senses relay the well-being of humans. • AGI need deep links to human interoceptive senses to assure that AGI sense human problems and experience directly. • By relying on human senses to define the AGI self and prioritize attention, we assure common goals for survival. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  3. Sci fi scenarios pit machine against human. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  4. Really, humans use machines to compete with other humans. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  5. …and to collaborate with them. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  6. AGI will participate in competitive-collaborative networks with people and other machines. Internet Competitive-Collaborative Human-Machine Meta-Intelligences AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  7. Each AGI will seek to benefit its ingroup. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  8. But how do we determine benefit? Difficult ethical choices involve trade-offs Humans may not have time to intercede Different humans make different decisions Human make decisions pre-consciously (Naqv, 2006) (Bechara, 2004) AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  9. “Friendly AI” offers a direction Friendly AI strives for a reflective decision using extrapolated values. AGI will have more data and potentially more speed for more reflective capacity. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  10. But value extrapolation is computationally demanding. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014 AGI will not be able to attend to all situations that could involve ethical decisions. Like humans, AGI will still need selective attention to reduce the decision load. Which decisions we consider is as important as our means to decide.

  11. Human attention is driven by emotion. Emotions are the means used to alert the brain of danger, disequilibrium, success and failure. (Damasio, 1999; 2010) (Baars, 2010) The first step toward protecting humans is to connect AGI directly to those emotions. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  12. The more we move, the more we put ourselves at risk, the more we need emotion.(Damasio, 2010) CONTROLLED CONDITIONS HIGHLY VARIABLE CONDITIONS Quantum Amoeba computer Mobile Animal robot AGI “R” Us: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  13. Habits reduce risk and processing requirements Organisms tend to operate according to habit. If habits result in emotional disequilibrium, then organism must choose new action plan. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  14. How the brain recognizes disequilibriumAnterior Cingulate Cortex: The Brain’s Difference Engine (greatly simplified) Continue current plan until NO MATCH NO MATCH Perceived Status (Current State) ≠ Expected Status (Goal) SOUND THE ALARM! Update Perceived and/or Expected Status until MATCH Diagram based on Marcus (2002) AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014 MATCH Perceived Status (Current State)≅Expected Status (Goal)

  15. Where do we get our expectations & goals? EXPERIENCE PREDICTION • Expected milestones or outcomes, based on memory • Possible milestones or outcomes predicted by new planning and decision-making AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  16. How might an AGI perceive its current state? EXTERNAL SENSES • Robot sensors • Animal senses • Environmental / IoT sensors • Human senses AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  17. AGI can source interoceptive data directly. Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014 • With wearables • Watches • Clothing • Other devices • Embedded devices • Heart monitors • DBI’s

  18. AGI must feel our joy, fear & sorrow. And connect us to each other. Homo communicatus – the next species of us! AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  19. Conclusion • Awareness of a human dilemma is the first step toward an ethical plan of action • The human brain uses emotions to detect danger and disequilibrium and to indicate success of plans • Interoceptive emotional data provide the best source of info about humans • By basing AGI attention on human emotions, we can link AGI and human well-being inextricably. AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  20. Some further steps • Consider advantage/disadvantage of homo communicatus vs. independent AGI and independent humans • Investigate how human interoceptive data can be included in AGI concept of self • Consider action options for AGI if interoceptive data is out of range • Consider potential for abusive apps of data • Model decision-making cases that include workgroup and/or customer interoceptive data AGI “R” US: The Vital Link Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  21. References • Baars, B. and Gage, N. (2010) Cognition, Brain and Consciousness, Academic Press, Elsevier, Ltd. Burlington, MA • Bechara, Antoine. June, 2004. The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage, Brain and Cognition, 55:1:30–40 • Damasio, Antonio. (1999) The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness, Harcourt, Inc. San Diego, CA • Damasio, Antonio. (2010) Self comes to mind: constructing the conscious brain, Vintage Books, Random House, New York, NY. • Marcus, Bruce. (2002) The sentimental citizen: emotion in democratic politics, Penn State University Press, University Park, PA. • Minsky, Marvin. 2006 The Emotion Machine: Commonsense Thinking, Artificial Intelligence and the Future of the Human Mind, New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, p. 233 • Naqv, Nassir, Shiv, Baba and Bechara, Antoine. October, 2006. The Role of Emotion in Decision Making: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective, Current Directions in Psychological Science. 15:5:260-264. Jeanne Dietsch, AAAI Spring Symposium 2014, Stanford University, March 25, 2014

  22. Jeanne Dietsch jdietsch@post.harvard.edu