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The Selective Intermediate Nodes Scheme for Ad Hoc On-Demand Routing Protocols. Yunjung Yi, Mario gerla and Taek Jin Kwon ICC 2002. Outline. Introduction Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics Local load level measurement Reactive protocols with SIN algorithm

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the selective intermediate nodes scheme for ad hoc on demand routing protocols

The Selective Intermediate Nodes Scheme for Ad Hoc On-Demand Routing Protocols

Yunjung Yi, Mario gerla and Taek Jin Kwon

ICC 2002

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
    • Local load level measurement
    • Reactive protocols with SIN algorithm
  • Simulation and experiments
    • Simulation Model
    • Simulation Results
  • Conclusion
introduction
Introduction
  • The classification of ad hoc routing protocols
    • Proactive routing protocols
      • OSPF
      • OLSR
    • Reactive routing protocols
      • AODV
      • DSR
introduction1
Introduction
  • Load aware routing
    • Load-balanced distribution of data traffic over the network.
  • Efficient flooding (EF)
    • Permits only a subset of the network to participate in flooding.
    • Several potential drawbacks
selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
  • Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) scheme

Retrains a node base on the stress level of the local network and the cluster status.

    • Light Load
    • Moderate
    • Saturated
selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics2
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
  • Accurate measurement of the local load
    • Assume each node uses 802.11 DCF MAC protocol.
    • Classification of channel status of an ad hoc network
      • IDLE、TRANSMITTING、RECEIVING and COLLISION
    • Accumulates the duration in
      • idle_time、 trans_time、 recv_time and coll_time
      • Ex.Idle_time = α * idle_time + (1 – α) * prev_idle_time
selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics3
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
  • Channel utilization
  • Transmission probability
selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics5
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
  • Two algorithms to decide local load level (Li)
    • Simple Algorithm (SMIPLE)
    • Fair-share Algorithm (FS)
selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics6
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
  • SMIPLE
    • Li ← IDLE if Ui < CHANNEL_IDLE_THRESHOLD
    • Li ← SATURATED and

ClusterStatus← ORDINARY NODE

if (Ui > Pmax + p) or (Qi > QUEUE_THRESHOLD)

    • Otherwise, Li ← MODERATE
selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics7
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
  • Fair-share Algorithm(FS)
    • Li ← SATURATED and

ClusterStatus ← ORDINARY NODE

if (Ui > Pmax + p) or (Qi > QUEUE_THRESHOLD) or (ANi > 2 and TXi > TRANSopt)

    • Optimal transmission probability
selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics9
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
  • Reactive Protocols with SIN algorithm
    • AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing)
    • When a new RREQ comes in with TTL greater than “0”
      • When the local load level (Li) is
        • IDLE : every node forwards the RREQ
        • MODERATE : only cluster heads and gateways forward RREQ
        • SATURATED : every node stops forwarding
selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics10

N1-N2

N2

N1-N3-N5

N5

N8

N1

N1

N1-N3-N4

N1-N3-N4-N7

N1-N3-N4

N4

N7

N1

N3

N1-N3

N6

N1-N3-N4-N6

N1-N3-N4

Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics

Destination

Source

DSR Example: route request

selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics11

N2

N1-N2-N5-N8

N1-N2-N5-N8

N1-N2-N5-N8

N5

N8

N1

N4

N7

N3

N6

Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics

Destination

Source

DSR Example: route reply

selective intermediate nodes sin characteristics12
Selective Intermediate Nodes (SIN) Characteristics
  • DSR (Dynamic Source Routing)
    • When a new RREQ comes in with TTL greater than “0”
      • The same mechanism in the modification of AODV
    • When Li -> IDLE or Li -> MODRATE and node is a (cluster head or gateway)
      • When a node learns a shorter path than current path to the destination, sends a “gratuitous”reply only
      • An intermediate node initiate the route reply if it already knows the route to the destination
simulation and experiments2
Simulation and experiments
  • Simulation Results
    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load
simulation and experiments3
Simulation and experiments
  • Simulation Results
    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load
simulation and experiments4
Simulation and experiments
  • Simulation Results
    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load
simulation and experiments5
Simulation and experiments
  • Simulation Results
    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load
simulation and experiments6
Simulation and experiments
  • Simulation Results
    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load
simulation and experiments7
Simulation and experiments
  • Simulation Results
    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load
simulation and experiments8
Simulation and experiments
  • Simulation Results
    • Testing with Increasing Offered Load
simulation and experiments9
Simulation and experiments
  • Simulation Results
    • Testing Scalability and Adaptability with Increasing the Number of Node
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Provide two algorithms that decide the saturation point.
  • Proposed Selective Intermediate Nodes scheme that controls the offered load.