What is the rural-urban fringe? • It is the area where the city meets the countryside.
Recently there has been increasing demand for land here because: • Land is cheaper • There is less traffic congestion and pollution • There is easier access and a better road infrastructure • There is a more pleasant environment with more open space
What do developers want the land for? • Housing developments as urban sprawl continues • Science and business parks • Hyper-markets and superstores • Retail parks & out of town shopping centres • Office developments • Hotels and conference centres • Airport expansion
Shopping Centres Why do they want to locate at the RUF? Cheap land Room to expand Close to motorways Space for parking Leisure facilities can also be provided Local suburban work force
Housing Why is housing built at the RUF? More housing is needed as more people are living alone and living longer. Land is cheap Peace and quiet Less crime Easy access to motorways Good access to countryside GATM video
What are the problems caused by developing the RUF? • Large areas of countryside may be lost • Buildings may be out of character with existing rural buildings • Villages become suburbanised • Traffic is likely to increase ( both cars and lorries) • There may be some noise or pollution • NIMBYism
How can change at the RUF be managed? Creating ‘Green Belts’ – a zone of countryside around a city where development is controlled. They aim to: • Prevent urban sprawl • Prevent towns merging • Preserve the special character of towns NOT ALL CITIES HAVE GREEN BELTS.
How can development at the RUF be managed? In recent years the Government has tried to reduce pressure on the RUF by encouraging development of brownfield sites over greenfield sites, and stopping any more out of town shopping centres from being built.
Greenfield Vs Brownfield • Why build on Brownfield Sites?- many areas have unoccupied houses which could be upgraded- brownfield sites already have utilities such as water and gas pipes- development in urban as opposed to rural areas can help reduce reliance on cars
Greenfield Vs Brownfield • Why build on Greenfield Sites?- cheaper to build on (don't have demolition costs) and lower land-values than in urban areas- generally perceived as better quality of life in the countryside
Key vocab • GreenBelts - countryside area around an urban area which are protected from development to restrict urban sprawlBrownfield Site - an area of land previously build on where developments have been demolished and new building can take placeGreenfield Site - an area of countryside never built on before • Out-of-town Shopping Centres - large retail developments found in out-of-town locations close to major transport links. • Rural-urban fringe - where urban areas meet the surrounding countryside • Urban Sprawl - uncontrolled growth on the edge of a settlement