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Psychological Disorders. Chapter 15. Psychological Disorders. Mental processes or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning. What is abnormal?. Human behavior lies along a continuum, from well adjusted to mal-adjusted

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psychological disorders1
Psychological Disorders
  • Mental processes or behavior patterns that cause emotional distress and/or substantial impairment in functioning
what is abnormal
What is abnormal?
  • Human behavior lies along a continuum, from well adjusted to mal-adjusted
  • Where along the continuum does behavior become abnormal?
  • Is the behavior considered strange within the person’s own culture?
  • Does the behavior cause personal distress?
  • Is the behavior maladaptive?
  • Is the person a danger to himself or to herself?
  • Is the person legally responsible for his or her acts?
prevalence of psychological disorders
Prevalence of psychological Disorders
  • 22% of Americans are diagnosed with a psychological disorder annually in the US
  • The lifetime risk of being diagnosed with a psychological disorder is 50%
  • A legal, not psychological term
  • Means an individual is not legally responsible for his/her behavior due to a psychiatric illness or some other temporary or permanent mental condition
dsm iv tr diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
DSM-IV/TRDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
  • Lists the criteria for assigning various diagnoses
  • All psychological disorders are organized into various categories
generalized anxiety disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
  • Characterized by chronic worry that is so severe that it interferes with daily functioning
panic disorder
Panic Disorder
  • Characterized by recurrent, unpredictable panic attacks of overwhelming anxiety, fear, or terror
  • During these attacks people experience palpitations, trembling, shaking, choking or smothering sensations, and the feeling that they are going to die or lose their sanity
  • There are three categories of phobias
    • Agoraphobia
    • Social phobia
    • Specific phobia
  • Fear of being in situations where escape is impossible or help is not available in case of incapacitating anxiety
social phobia
Social Phobia
  • Fear of social situations where one might be embarrassed or humiliated by appearing clumsy or incompetent
specific phobia
Specific Phobia
  • A marked fear of a specific object or situation and a catchall for all other phobias
obsessive compulsive disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
  • Characterized by obsessions (persistent, recurring, involuntary thoughts, images, or impulses that cause great distress) and/or compulsions (persistent, irresistible, irrational urges to perform an act or ritual repeatedly)
A major depressive disorder characterized by feelings of great sadness, despair, guilt, worthlessness, hopelessness, and, in extreme cases, suicidal intentions
Lifetime rates of depression vary widely from one culture to another
  • Women are more likely to suffer from depression than men all over the world
bipolar disorder
Bipolar Disorder
  • Mood disorder in which a person suffers from manic episodes (periods of extreme elation, euphoria, and hyperactivity) alternating with major depression
proposed causes of mood disorders
Proposed causes of mood disorders
  • 1. genetic predisposition
  • 2. imbalance in neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin
  • 3. tendency to turn hostility and resentment inward rather than expressing it
  • 4. distorted and negative views of oneself, the world, the future
  • 5. stress
Heredity is a major cause of mood disorders.
  • Negative thought patterns also contribute to these disorders.
  • Major life stresses may trigger a mood disorder.
  • Depression is linked to suicide along with other disorders.
  • Elderly, white males highest rate of suicide- perhaps due to poor health or loneliness
  • Women more likely to attempt, men more likely to be successful
  • Asian Americans have the lowest rate of all US ethnic groups
  • Positive symptoms: abnormal behaviors and characteristics- hallucinations, disorganized thinking, delusions, disorganized speech, bizarre behavior, inappropriate affect
  • Negative symptoms: social withdrawal, apathy, loss of motivation, very limited speech, slowed movements, flat affect, poor hygiene and grooming
4 types of schizophrenia
4 types of schizophrenia
  • Paranoid
  • Disorganized
  • Catatonic
  • Undifferentiated
risk factors
Risk factors
  • Genetic predisposition
  • Stress in people who are predisposed
  • Excessive dopamine activity in the brain
somatoform and dissociative disorders
  • Involve bodily symptoms that cannot be identified as any of the known medical conditions
  • Persistent fear that bodily symptoms are the signs of some serious disease
conversion disorder
Conversion disorder
  • Loss of motor or sensory functioning in some part of the body, such as paralysis or blindness
dissociative amnesia
Dissociative amnesia
  • Loss of memory for limited periods of their life or for their entire personal identity
dissociative fugue disorder
Dissociative fugue disorder
  • People forget their entire identity, travel away form home, may assume new identity somewhere else
dissociative identity disorder
Dissociative identity disorder
  • Multiple personality
  • Two or more distinct, unique personalities occur in the same person, each taking over at different times
  • Most patients are female and victims of early, severe physical and/or sexual abuse
other psychological disorders
Other Psychological Disorders
  • Gender identity disorder: people feel their psychological gender identity is different form that which is typically associated with their biological sex
  • Paraphilias:sufferers have recurrent sexual urges, fantasies, and behaviors that involve children, other non-consenting partner, or non-human objects
  • Sexual dysfunction: a problem with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm
3 clusters of personality disorders
3 Clusters of Personality Disorders
  • People with personality disorders have long-standing, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of behavior that cause problems in social relationships at work
  • Often cause personal distress
  • Many are unable to change and always blame others for their problems
  • Cluster A: characterized by odd behavior
  • Cluster B: erratic emotions and overly dramatic behavior
  • Cluster C: disorders associated with extreme levels of fearfulness and anxiety