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Any questions about the syllabus? • About the homework? • About last week’s class?
Future regrets • At the end of every semester, some students ask: “is there anything I can do to raise my grade” • One answer: Go back in time and be more committed, go to office hours, earn higher scores • You are at that time now. Grab it before it goes by
How? Why? Lab 2: Problem solving • or why Chymistry outlasted Magick* • *in most places
Goals for today • Use scientific approaches to solve problems • Observe yourself in action: you are already a practitioner of scientific approaches • Observe yourself in action: want to get better at anything? Practice & analyze • Observe others in action: another grand way to improve
Futures • Seen CSI? House? Numbers? Myth busters? • Wonder about global warming? Best ways to create jobs? • Have views about anything at all? • Want to be the one that solves problems? Science isn’t facts. Facts fuel science. What can you do with the information?
Definitions • “Science is the human endeavor to achieve a better understanding of the world by observation, comparison, experiment, analysis, synthesis, and conceptualization” • “Science is a body of facts (‘knowledge’) and the concepts that permit explaining these facts.” • Both from Ernst Mayr, What makes biology unique p. 140 (Kindle version)
You already do this • You stumble out of your room at 4 a.m. and turn on a lamp • Nothing happens • Now what? Curse the darkness? • Notes to self: What elements are you employing? What’s your process?* *Your notes today will be your material for a discussion toward the end of class concerning METACOGNITION
Gonna Science you up • “The light’s not turning on!” = observation • Possible explanations = hypothesis/models • “If (condition or action), it should ___” = prediction • Execution of prediction = test • “Gotta catch ‘em all”: goal is to whittle away possibilities until only one is left standing • If only looking at one, challenge it to fail
Prediction fails Prediction Met think about causality (hypothesis) Gain confidence Reject/modify model Read, Observe, Consider: Become curious Create/Embrace functional explanation (model) Predict: IF (model true) THEN after X, Y will result Execute test(s): Experiment! Do results make sense? Repeat
Ranking ‘knowing’ • Empirical--you saw it, touched it, etc. • Reasoned argument from documented/identified assumptions & previous knowledge • Repeatedly established by others that you ‘trust’ • Never: assertions by authority regardless of the nature (or volume) of that authority. No, really--never!
Stuff you can figure out:Thinking with your nose**Another place to take notes about how you solved the problem
Paper towel to test--with your nose • What do you notice? (observe) • What does the fact of smelling tell you… • about what your body does? (model) • about involvement of molecules? (model) • What does smelling different things tell you? (model)
C10H14O • The formula for both smells. • How can you make sense of this information and the observations of your nose? • How can you model this information?
This is the structural drawing for both smells. What can you conclude? • See ‘Duo_Comparator’ inControl Ctr => Not for credit => Duo_Comparator => lab01_Tao => Spearmint, caraway
Today’s Groups • Genevive , Rachel , Stacie, Mason • Grace , Emily , Megan • Michael , Onur , Kimberly • David , Jessenia , Don, Sofia • Jose , Samantha , Jessie • Joseph , Kathryn , Jessi P • Ryan , Angel , Robert
PatternMaster • A quest for the rules that order a system • a.k.a. “The most scientific thing you’ll do in this course” **Another place to take notes about how you solved the problem
Perimeter color to inner left shape color Top shape to overall shape Rule Quest Given 1-step anti-clockwise*, it could be... Make me a hypothesis, test it, answer! *NEIGHBOR definitions are clockwise, anti/counterclockwise
Take a look Control Center => Non-Assessor software => DON’T LOG IN =>Select ‘Easy #1’
- This is what it says when you are NOT logged in(this is for exploring it in class)- You have to log in in order to get CREDIT for this assignment when you do it at home
Make observations • Make several selections from the menu • Get a ‘feel’ for what’s standard. This is practice for solving medium & hard puzzles: Figuring out the ‘background’ so you can detect the ‘foreground’--the hints that something is noteworthy • Return to your prep notes for end-of-class assignment: • observe/record your process, approaches, successes
Polya • Lab Manual, Appendix F • George Polya enumerated a general strategy based on teaching & contemplation for many years • It’s not rules, it’s ideas
Ordering the world 31 • What’s with these liquids? • Be watching! This contributes to your ‘learn from self’ page
Multiple alcohols + water 32 • Alcohols: Ethanol, Propanol, Butanol • Combine 1ml of each of these with 1ml of water • Place parafilm on the top, invert each tube a couple of times • What do you observe? (part of your HOMEWORK will be to put your observations in a table, so EVERYONE should write down their own) • Your lab manual has TABLES in the appendix section – USE THEM! • WHAT IS AN ALCOHOL? (Google abilities time to shine) • Table should have the ‘name’ of the compound and a description of the compound (or a structure)
33 What’s going on? • What did you observe when you mixed these alcohols with water? • To STRUCTVIEWER! – it’s in the Control Center under ‘Course Software’ in the ‘Not-for-credit and other software’ • Once in StructViewer go to ‘Structures Menu’, click ‘small’ and you will be able to find the structures for all these alcohols • Generate a hypothesis about why you saw what you saw
Possible Hypotheses? 34 Ethanol Propanol Butanol
Hypothesis 1 = it’s the number of carbons 35 • YEAH!!! We are done and can go home!!!
Fat Chance! 36 • Are we really done? • What would be our next step?
Predictions 37 • What predictions would you make about additional alcohols behavior with water?
Gather more evidence 38 • If you go back to the hood, you will see three more alcohols: methanol, pentanol, and butanediol • Extrapolation! • Take three more tubes with 2ml of water per tube back to the hood and take 2ml of each of the alcohols • Put parafilm over the tubes, invert a few times • Record your observations
Look at the structures 39 • In StructViewer, look for methanol, pentanol, and butanediol
41 What is a NEW hypothesis? Methanol Pentanol Butanediol
Counting the Carbons 42 Butanol Butanediol
Hypothesis 2 = it’s the ratio of carbons to alcohol groups that determines ‘mixability’ 43
Data for your table • Make sure you have all of the information that will need to go in your table • Excerpt from rubric: Your table should include the following: • - Title (subject(s) and properties being assessed) • - Appropriately labeled columns and rows, appropriate units (if applicable), • - Complete data • - Logical organization • - A figure legend at the bottom of the table (not in the table) that summarizes what you found based on your observations
44 Time for some diagraming • Get in groups of two and take out a piece of paper • Write down all of the important points or steps that we took in order to come to our 1st and 2nd hypotheses • These should be ‘sound bites’– 10 - 12 word phrases • Classify your important points as observations, hypotheses, predictions, or tests • Put your steps together in a logic diagram that explains the process from beginning to end – use rectangles!!!
What’s a rubric? • It’s a treasure map--to POINTS. • Take a look • Control Center => Calendar => (this week) => Written: Alcohols Table + Logic Diagram => Rubric
LucidChart! 45 • As we just discussed, you will use LucidChart to make your logic diagram • You automatically have a LucidChart account b/c you are a student at U of A • You access this account via your CatMail account • Log into CatMail and go here:
That will bring you to a list of tools/applications that you have access to via your CatMail account • Click on ‘more’ which will bring you to more apps where you will find Lucidchart • Open LucidChart
Link to more info about Lucid including how to collaborate for doing things in pairs: • http://blc.arizona.edu/courses/181Lab/LucidChart/lucidHub.html
Make sure to tell your instructor who is going to do what for the assignment and/or when you will meet to discuss the assignment BEORE you leave today
Metacognition • Awareness or analysis of one's own learning or thinking processes1 • Refers to people’s abilities to predict their performance on various tasks and to monitor their own levels of mastery and understanding2 1.) http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/metacognition 2.) Donovan, M. S., Bransford, J. D. & Pellegrino, J. W. (Eds). (1999). How people learn: Bridging research and practice. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
Why it’s important • Metacognitive approaches: • Sense-making • Self-assessment • Reflection on what works and what needs to be improved • These practices have been shown to help students transfer their learning to new topics and situations = an increased effectiveness for approaching new material and problems 1 1.) Donovan, M. S., Bransford, J. D. & Pellegrino, J. W. (Eds). (1999). How people learn: Bridging research and practice. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.