research based strategies for increasing student achievement l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 62

Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 219 Views
  • Uploaded on

An Overview of…. Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement and What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action (Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003).

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement' - conroy


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
research based strategies for increasing student achievement

An Overview of…

Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement

Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-Based Strategies

for Increasing Student Achievement and

What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

slide2

Major Factors Influencing Student Achievement

  • School factors
    • Guaranteed viable curriculum
    • Challenging goals and feedback
    • Parental and community involvement
    • Safe, orderly, conducive to learning environment
    • Professionalism and collegiality
  • Classroom factors
    • Aligned, viable curriculum
    • Classroom management
    • Instructional strategies
  • Student factors
    • Home environment
    • Motivation
    • Acquisition of knowledge
slide3
“In teaching it is the method and not the content that is the message…the drawing out, not the pumping in.”

- Ashley Montague

9 research based strategies for instruction robert marzano 2001 2003
9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction (Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

1. Identifying Similarities and Differences

2. Summarizing and Note Taking

3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

4. Homework and Practice

9 research based strategies for instruction robert marzano 2001 20035
9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction (Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

5. Nonlinguistic Representation

6. Cooperative Learning

7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses

9. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

1 identifying similarities and differences
1. Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Generalizations from research
    • Explicit guidance in identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.

-Students’ independent identification of similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.

identifying similarities and differences
Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Generalizations from research (cont.)
    • Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form (e.g. Venn Diagram) enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge.

-Identifying similarities and differences can be done in a variety of forms.

forms for identifying similarities and differences
Forms for Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Comparing

What are the important characteristics of these topics/ideas that you want to compare?

  • Classifying

What are the rules that govern group membership?

forms for identifying similarities and differences9
Forms for Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Metaphors (“Love is a rose”)

What is the abstract or nonliteral connection between the ideas?

  • Analogies (“Oxygen is to humans as carbon dioxide is to plants”)

What is the “relationship between the relationships”?

slide11

9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

1. Identifying Similarities and Differences

2 summarizing and note taking
2.Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Generalizations from research on summarizing
    • To effectively summarize, students must delete, substitute, and keep some information.

- To effectively delete, substitute, and keep information, students mustanalyze the information at a deep level.

  • The structure of the information can
  • aid summarizing.
classroom practice in summarizing
Classroom Practice in Summarizing
  • Rule-based Summarizing
    • Delete the trivial.
    • Delete the redundant.
    • Substitute generic terms for listing. (e.g. “dogs” for “labs, spaniels, and boxers”)
    • Select/create a topic sentence.
  • Summary Frames
    • Create a series of questions to highlight critical elements to guide students in summarizing information.
classroom practice in summarizing cont
Classroom Practice in Summarizing (cont.)
  • Reciprocal Teaching (Student leader)
    • Summarize
    • Generate questions
    • Clarify
    • Encourage predictions
slide15

Summarizing and Note Taking

  • Generalizations from research on note taking

- Verbatim note taking is least effective.

- Notes are a work in progress.

  • Notes should be used as study guides
  • for tests.

- The more notes taken, the better.

classroom practice in note taking
Classroom Practice in Note Taking
  • Teacher-prepared notes
    • Highlight important points.
    • Model note taking for students.
  • Formats for notes
    • Informal outline
    • Webbing
    • Combination
9 research based strategies for instruction robert marzano 2001 200318
9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

1. Identifying Similarities and Differences

2. Summarizing and Note Taking

3 reinforcing effort and providing recognition
3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Generalizations from research on reinforcing effort

- Not all students realize importance of believing in effort.

- Students can learn to change their beliefs to an emphasis on effort.

classroom practice in reinforcing effort
Classroom Practice in Reinforcing Effort
  • Keep track of effort and achievement.
    • Effort and achievement rubrics
    • Effort and achievement chart
reinforcing effort and providing recognition
Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Generalizations from research on providing recognition
    • Rewards increase intrinsic motivation if measured as student’s attitude toward the activity.

- Reward is most effective when attached to attaining a performance goal.

- The more abstract/symbolic the reward, the more powerful it is (e.g. verbal recognition).

classroom practice in providing recognition
Classroom Practice in Providing Recognition
  • Personalize recognition
    • Recognize “personal best”.
  • Pause, prompt, praise
    • Use during demanding task.
  • Concrete symbols of recognition
    • Give tokens (e.g. stickers) for achievement of performance goal.
slide24

9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking

3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

4 homework and practice
4. Homework and Practice
  • Generalizations from research on homework

- Students at lower grades should be given less homework than students at higher grade levels.

- Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum.

- The purposes for homework should be identified and stated.

- If homework is assigned, it should be commented on.

classroom practice in homework
Classroom Practice in Homework
  • Establish, communicate, and adhere to clear homework policies.
    • Purposes (i.e. practice, preparation, elaboration)
    • Amount assigned
    • Consequences for non-completion
    • Description of parental involvement acceptable
classroom practice in homework27
Classroom Practice in Homework
  • Design homework assignments that clearly state the purpose and outcome for the assignments.
  • Vary the approaches to providing feedback.
    • Manage work load
    • Maximize the effectiveness of feedback
homework and practice
Homework and Practice
  • Generalizations from research on practice
    • Mastering a skill takes repeated, focused practice over time.

- During initial practice of a skill, students shape their conceptual understanding. The student should deal with only a few examples during this phase to support the depth of reasoning required. Speed is not the focus.

classroom practice in practicing skills
Classroom Practice in Practicing Skills
  • Chart both speed and accuracy.
  • Focus practice on specific parts of a complex skill or process.
  • Provide time for modeling the skill, time for guided practice, and time for independent practice.
slide31

9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

4. Homework and Practice

5 nonlinguistic representations
5. Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Generalizations from research
    • A variety of activities produce nonlinguistic representations which enhance student understanding of content.

- Nonlinguistic representations should elaborate on (add to) content knowledge.

types of nonlinguistic representations
Types of Nonlinguistic Representations
  • Graphic organizers
    • Descriptive pattern
    • Time sequence
    • Process/Cause-Effect
    • Episode
    • Generalization/Principal pattern
    • Concept pattern
  • Physical models
    • Concrete representations of knowledge
    • Manipulatives
types of nonlinguistic representations cont
Types of Nonlinguistic Representations (cont.)
  • Mental pictures
  • Pictures or pictographs
  • Kinesthetic (movement) activity
slide36

9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice

5. Nonlinguistic Representation

slide37

6. Cooperative Learning

  • Generalizations from research
    • Organizing groups based on ability should be done sparingly.
  • Cooperative groups should be small in size (3-4 members).
  • Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically (at least once per week), but not overused.
classroom practice in cooperative learning
Classroom Practice in Cooperative Learning
  • Five elements of cooperative learning
    • Positive interdependence
    • Face-to-face interaction
    • Individual and group accountability
    • Interpersonal and small group skills
    • Group processing
  • Grouping patterns
    • Informal (e.g. turn-to-your-neighbor)
    • Formal for more complex tasks (with cooperative learning components)
    • Base groups (long-term)
slide40

9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representation

6. Cooperative Learning

7 setting objectives and providing feedback
7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Generalizations from research on goal setting
    • Instructional goals narrow what students focus on.
  • Instructional goals should not be too specific (i.e. not stated in behavioral terms).
  • Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s classroom goals.
classroom practice in goal setting
Classroom Practice in Goal Setting
  • Set focused but flexible goals.
  • Develop contracts with students for attainment of specific goals.
setting objectives and providing feedback
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Generalizations from research on providing feedback
    • Feedback is the most powerful single modification to enhance achievement.
  • Feedback should be “corrective” with explanation, not just “right” or “wrong”. Ask students to work at the task until they succeed.
  • Feedback should be timely.
setting objectives and providing feedback44
Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Generalizations from research on providing feedback (cont.)
    • Feedback should be specific to a particular standard/criterion.
  • Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback.
classroom practice in providing feedback
Classroom Practice inProviding Feedback
  • Give students feedback in terms of specific levels of knowledge and skill instead of a percentage score.
    • Develop a rubric for information.
    • Develop a rubric for process/skill.
  • Give students specific feedback.
  • Students can be a part of feedback process.
slide47

9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representation
  • Cooperative Learning

7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

8 generating and testing hypotheses
8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Generalizations from research
    • Hypothesis generation and testing can be approached in an inductive or deductive manner.
      • Deductive – Use a general rule to make a prediction about a future action or event
      • Inductive – Draw new conclusions based on information known or given
  • Teachers should ask students to clearly explain their hypotheses and their conclusions.
classroom practice in generating and testing hypotheses
Classroom Practice in Generating and Testing Hypotheses
  • Systems analysis
    • Generate hypotheses to predict what might happen if some aspect of a system were changed.
  • Problem solving
    • Generate and test hypotheses related to overcoming barriers in obtaining a goal.
  • Historical investigation
    • Construct plausible scenarios for the past, about which there is no general agreement.
classroom practice in generating and testing hypotheses cont
Classroom Practice in Generating and Testing Hypotheses (cont.)
  • Invention
    • Hypothesize what might work, develop idea, conduct tests to see if it solves the problem/meets goal.
  • Experimental inquiry
    • Generate and test hypotheses for explaining something you have observed.
  • Decision Making
    • Use a structured Decision Making framework for analysis of alternatives.
classroom practice in generating and testing hypotheses cont51
Classroom Practice in Generating and Testing Hypotheses (cont.)
  • Make sure students can explain their hypotheses and conclusions.
    • Provide templates for reporting.
    • Provide sentence stems for explaining conclusions.
    • Provide or develop rubrics with students, so they know that the criteria on which they will be evaluated are based on the quality of their explanations.
    • Utilize audiotapes for explanations.
slide53

9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representation
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses

9 cues questions and advance organizers
9. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
  • Generalizations from research on cues and questions
    • Cues and questions should focus on what is important as opposed to what is merely interesting.
  • Questions that require students to analyze information produce deeper learning than questions that ask students to recall or recognize information.
cues questions and advance organizers
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
  • Generalizations from research on cues and questions (cont.)
    • “Waiting” briefly before accepting responses from students increases depth of students’ answers.
  • Questions are effective learning tools even when asked before a learning experience.
classroom practice in cues and questions
Classroom Practice in Cues and Questions
  • Explicit cues
    • Provide students with a preview of what they are about to experience by directly asking about prior experiences related to content.
  • Questions that elicit inferences
  • Questions that analyze or critique information presented
cues questions and advance organizers57
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
  • Generalizations from research on advance organizers
    • Advance organizers should focus on what is important as opposed to what is merely interesting.
  • Advance organizers that require students to analyze information produce deeper learning than organizers that ask students to recall or recognize information.
cues questions and advance organizers58
Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers
  • Generalizations from research on advance organizers (cont.)
    • Advance organizers are most useful with information that is not well organized.
  • Different types of advance organizers produce different results.
    • Expository organizers have the greatest impact on student learning.
classroom practice in advance organizers
Classroom Practice in Advance Organizers
  • Expository advance organizersdescribe the new content.
  • Narrative advance organizers preview the content in a story format.
  • Skimming of information provides ageneral familiarity with the content.
  • Graphic organizers can help students think about new knowledge before experiencing it.
slide61

9 Research-based Strategies for Instruction

(Robert Marzano, 2001 & 2003)

  • Identifying Similarities and Differences
  • Summarizing and Note Taking
  • Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition
  • Homework and Practice
  • Nonlinguistic Representation
  • Cooperative Learning
  • Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback
  • Generating and Testing Hypotheses

9. Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

slide62

“Teachers: Two kinds: the kind that fill you with so much quail shot that you can’t move, and the kind that just give you a little prod behind and you jump to the skies.”

- Robert Frost