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Bringing Practice In: A Workshop for Faculty Seeking Ways to Improve Anthropological Training for Applied and Practice-Oriented Students. Riall W. Nolan University of Cincinnati November 2002. Different Kinds of Anthropology. Academic Anthropologists. Applied Anthropologists. Practicing

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Bringing Practice In:A Workshop for Faculty Seeking Ways to Improve Anthropological Training for Applied and Practice-Oriented Students

Riall W. Nolan

University of Cincinnati

November 2002

different kinds of anthropology
Different Kinds of Anthropology

Academic

Anthropologists

Applied

Anthropologists

Practicing

Anthropologists

University-

Based

Externally-

Based

THE DISCIPLINE OF ANTHROPOLOGY

the world of practice

Program Implementation

& Service Delivery

Research

Other

Academy-

Based 44%

Non-Profit

Sector 11%

6%

37%

18%

Public

Sector

Teaching

14%

22%

Administration &

Management

Private Sector

25%

26%

The World of Practice

What Practitioners Do

Where Practitioners Work

main practice options bases
Main Practice Options (Bases)

Freelancer

Business Head

Private

Sector Employee

-

Main Practice

Options

Public

Sector Employee

-

Consultant

Non

-

Profit Employee

University Employee

technician or manager
Technicians

Highly skilled in very specific areas

Work in data collection and analysis, area and ethnic expertise, languages

Tend to be short-term

Assignments are sequential

Managers

Hire and supervise the technicians

Involved in policy, program and project work

Tend to be full-time

Career arc involves progressively responsible assignments

Technician or Manager?
the components of a practitioner s job

Base:

Government

Corporate

Non-Profit

Independent/freelance

Sole proprietorship

Small business

University

Sector:

Social services

Public administration

Agriculture

Environment/nat. resources

International development

Manufacturing

Advertising

Public relations

Marketing

Planning

Function:

Management

Production/implementation

Design

Evaluation/impact assessment

Data collection/analysis

Needs assessment

Advocacy

Policy formulation

The Components of a Practitioner’s Job
types of practitioner training programs
Types of Practitioner Training Programs
  • Programs which offer only the MA
  • Programs offering the MA as a terminal degree, but also the PhD
  • Programs offering the PhD, with the MA as a ‘consolation prize’
ma or phd factors in the choice
MA or PhD? Factors in the Choice
  • Time
    • Average time to doctorate – 12.4 years
  • Money
    • Money spent on the degree
    • Money earned with the degree
  • Outlook
    • research vs application
    • academic vs outside orientation
    • specialist vs generalist
    • pure anthropology vs multidisciplinary
core program requirements
Core Program Requirements
  • NAPA Guidelines:
    • Program should be named
    • Program should have a specialty
    • Responsibility should be fixed with a PhD holder
    • There should be an integrated organized plan of study
    • Students should be identified as belonging to the program
    • Funding and support should be adequate
components of an applied curriculum
Components of An Applied Curriculum

Advising/Mentoring

Thesis or Project Work

Career Guidance

Cognate Area

Courses

Elective

Courses

Core

Courses

Field

Experience

Extracurricular

Activities

swot analysis
SWOT Analysis
  • SWOT: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
    • The external environment presents you with opportunities and threats
    • The internal environment consists of your own strengths and weaknesses
    • You combine these to determine strategy
qualifications skills and competencies
Qualifications, Skills and Competencies
  • Qualifications: basic parts to your background
  • Skills: things you know how to do
  • Competencies: collections of skills focused on specific areas
threshold qualifications
Threshold Qualifications
  • Academic Training:
    • a Master’s degree in anthropology
  • Language Proficiency:
    • at least one world language
  • Field Experience:
    • oriented toward practice
  • Workplace Competencies:
    • self-management skills
    • functional skills
    • technical skills
competencies for anthropological practice
Competencies for Anthropological Practice
  • Finding Out Things
  • Analyzing and Learning Things
  • Communicating Things
  • Planning and Designing Things
  • Managing Things
  • Judging Things
site visits
Site Visits
  • Looking at the School
  • size & location
  • reputation and ranking
  • tuition/cost of living
  • facilities and programs
  • student body
  • Looking at the Program
  • applied emphasis
  • international and cross-cultural emphasis
  • record in career development
  • practitioner involvement
  • outside links
  • externally-based performance criteria
  • Looking at the Department
  • faculty
  • students
  • climate
how advisors help students
How Advisors Help Students
  • Orientation to school and program
  • Cultural key informant
  • Role model for performance standards
  • Provide wisdom, insight, perspective
  • Help them make crucial choices
  • Connect them with others
the ideal advisor
The Ideal Advisor
  • Should know useful things
  • Should be willing to share these
  • Should be honest with advisees
  • Should challenge them
  • Should have a compatible workstyle
  • Should be mature, tenured, stable
managing the advisor advisee relationship
Managing the Advisor-Advisee Relationship
  • It is reciprocal
  • Avoid the “black halo” effect
  • Beware of Pygmalion or Svengali-type relationships
  • Discuss the needs of both sides openly and honestly
  • Learn to negotiate and compromise
key aspects of field experience
Work in Organizations

Work on a Project

Cross-Cultural Contexts

Using what you’ve learned

Learning new things

Training in application

Career and job information

Working with others

Network-building

Key Aspects of Field Experience
experiential learning in the field

Experiencing

(The “Activity” Phase)

Applying

Publishing

(Deciding How to Use

(Sharing Reactions and

Learning)

Observations)

Processing

Generalizing

(Discussing Patterns and

(Developing Principles)

Dynamics)

Experiential Learning in the Field
customizing learning with learning contracts
Customizing Learning with Learning Contracts
  • Objectives: What do you want to learn and why?
  • Strategies: How will you learn these things?
  • Products: What will the results look like?
  • Outcomes: How will the results be judged?

Strategies, Resources

and Activities

Products to

be Assessed

Assessment Pro-

cedures and Criteria

Learning Objectives

considerations in designing field experiences
Considerations in Designing Field Experiences
  • Timing
  • Type of assignment
  • Supervision and evaluation
  • Academic credit
  • Documentation and outcomes
cross cultural field experience
Cross-Cultural Field Experience
  • Can include:
    • A new or different frame of reference
    • An unfamiliar or uncertain environment
    • People of a different background
    • Different value systems
    • Intersecting value systems
    • Scarce resources
    • Ambiguity or uncertainly
    • Flexibility
    • Performance under pressure
learning outside the program
Learning Outside the Program
  • Career Counseling
  • Professional Conferences
  • Consulting and Research Opportunities
  • Grant-writing
  • Language Learning
the non academic job market
The Non-Academic Job Market
  • Relatively unstructured
  • No master list of jobs
  • Opportunities are often hidden
  • Interview and negotiation skills are key
  • The range of jobs is enormous
  • No job lasts forever
the job search strategy

Visioning

  • Networking
  • Info. Interviewing
  • SWOT Analysis
  • Portfolio Prep.
  • More Networking
  • More Info. Interviewing
  • Interviewing
  • Negotiating
The Job Search Strategy

1. Get on the List

2. Stay on the List

3. Get Chosen

a graduate s career vision

Sector

Setting

Functions

Level

of Effort

Filters

Perks

and Lurks

A Graduate’s Career Vision

What general area is this: health, education, industry, etc?

Your Values

  • What things do you feel strongly about?
  • How do you strive to live?
  • What do you respect in others?

Where is this job: public, private,

or non-profit sector; domestic, international, etc?

What does the job involve: data collection, management, planning, policymaking, etc?

Your Interests

  • What do you like to do?
  • What do you already know a lot about?
  • What would you like to know more about?

Is the job clerical, managerial or technical? Full-time or part-time? Permanent or temporary?

Your Skills

What qualifications do you need? PhD? Language? Citizenship? Gender? Age? Ethnicity? Politics?

  • What can you do that is useful in several different areas?
  • What things do you think you’re particularly good at doing?

Salary? Title? Rank? Mobility? Connections? Visibility? Security?

Power? Fringe Benefits?

anthropological skills in the job hunt
Anthropological Skills in the Job Hunt
  • You can define the shape of the world of work and locate significant nodes and actors within it
  • You can quickly research the relevant literature and extract significance from it
  • You can learn the “local language” of the workplace
  • You can analyze and operate within work cultures
  • You are skilled at asking good questions
  • You are comfortable with ambiguity
  • You can modify your frameworks as you learn
networking
Creates a web of professional relationships

Provides information, insight, advice, and access

Connects you with role models and mentors

Is a form of reality testing

Lasts throughout your professional lifetime

Can be a source of support and feedback

Connects you with “insiders”

Through insiders, you connect to many others

Industries rely on peer judgments

Industry networks communicate constantly about people and events

Professionals in your network are highly mobile

Networking
the goals of informational interviewing
The Goals of Informational Interviewing
  • What does this organization do and how does it do it?
  • What are working conditions like here?
  • What qualifications do you need to work here?
  • How do they make hiring decisions?
a graduate s professional portfolio
A Graduate’s Professional Portfolio
  • A resume of no more than 1-2 pages
  • A 1-2 page career summary
  • A list of people who can provide references
  • An inventory of professional work
resumes
Resumes
  • A resume is not a CV
  • It is a brief account of one’s skills and accomplishments
  • It has only one purpose: to get someone an interview
  • It is not about you: it is about you in relation to them and their needs
components of the resume
Components of the Resume
  • Your personal data
  • Your education
  • Your job history
  • Your outside activities
  • Any special honors, skills, interests or qualifications you may have
creating your resume
Creating Your Resume
  • The best predictor of future performance is past performance
  • Stress therefore what you have accomplished, not just what you know
  • Of particular value:
    • Presentation and communication skills
    • Project and team management experience
    • Creative leadership and problem-solving
    • A range of research skills
    • The ability to “get things done”
getting things done
“Getting Things Done”
  • Solving problems
  • Producing results
  • Getting along with people
  • Helping them to get along with each other
  • Generating and using resources efficiently
  • Finding new ways to do things
preparing your accomplishments
Preparing Your Accomplishments
  • Pick 3-6 of your best examples. Include difficult or “challenging” situations.
  • For each:
    • State the problem, tasks, issues or opportunities
    • Describe your strategy or approach
    • State the skills and abilities you used
    • Describe the outcomes you achieved
  • Your actions are central to the story.
  • Connect to your listeners’ specific needs.
  • Stress your fit with, and enthusiasm for, the job.
selling them on anthropology
Selling Them on Anthropology
  • We understand the centrality of culture.
  • We develop understanding inductively.
  • We are holistic in our outlook.
  • We search for comparisons and contrasts.
  • We are highly interactive.

BUT:

  • Don’t propose research as the answer to everything.
common stereotypes of academics
Common Stereotypes of “Academics”
  • Lack common sense
  • Can’t meet deadlines
  • Don’t take direction well
  • Can’t write clearly
  • Aren’t practical
  • Aren’t team players
  • Aren’t results-oriented
  • Aren’t loyal to the organization
a hierarchy of professional development
A Hierarchy of Professional Development
  • 4. PROFESSIONAL EFFECTIVENESS:
    • Managing others
    • Dealing with stress and failure
    • Retraining and re-skilling
    • Making your work count
    • Changing jobs or careers
  • 3. MASTERING BASIC TASKS:
    • Working with projects
    • Working with consultants
    • Decision-making
    • Communication
    • Proposal and report-writing
  • 2. CONNECTING TO OTHERS:
    • Dealing with your boss
    • Dealing with counterparts
    • Managing conflict
    • Working in teams
  • 1. BASIC SURVIVAL:
    • Analyzing the organization
    • Understanding your job
    • Performing
your first year at work
Your First Year at Work

Use These Competencies:

To Do These Things:

  • Interaction:
    • Dealing tactfully and persuasively with co-workers
  • Coordination:
    • Aligning your efforts to the overall needs of the organization
  • Responsiveness:
    • Assessing your boss’s needs and providing satisfactory performance
  • Conflict Management:
    • Getting difficulties and disputes ironed out
  • Communication:
    • Exchanging information in positive and productive ways
  • Perform
    • Sufficient solutions, not optimal ones
    • Seek opportunities, not problems
  • Connect
    • Develop relationships
    • Build acceptance, reputation, and respect
  • Learn
    • Optimal ignorance
    • Appropriate imprecision