AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice. Chapter 4 - Policing: Purpose and Organization. The Police Mission. What are the main purposes of Police? Enforce Laws Investigate Crimes/Arrest Offenders Prevent Crime Keep the Peace Serve the Community. Law Enforcement.
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AJ 50 – Introduction to Administration of Justice Chapter 4 - Policing: Purpose and Organization
The Police Mission What are the main purposes of Police? • Enforce Laws • Investigate Crimes/Arrest Offenders • Prevent Crime • Keep the Peace • Serve the Community
Law Enforcement • Responsible for enforcing federal, state, and local laws • Traditional role as “crime fighters” • Majority of time spent on non-emergency calls for service • Only 10% - 20% of calls require law enforcement • Enforcement priorities come from Departments • Role Models of society • Held to higher ethical standard • On and off-duty behavior always being judged
Investigation and Arrest • Most law enforcement response and activity is REACTIVE • Something happens, someone calls, police respond to call • Rare to intervene in crime actually in progress • Phases of Investigation • Crime occurs/someone calls police • Patrol officer responds/investigates/writes report • Report referred to Detective Bureau • Follow-up investigation may result in arrest
Crime Prevention • Anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime risk and initiation of some action to eliminate or reduce it • PROACTIVE approach to criminal activity • Old concept, new implementation through dedicated resources • Techniques • Access control, theft-deterrence, lighting, landscaping, CPTED • Programs • Operation ID, Neighborhood Watch, Crime Stoppers
Keeping the Peace • What is a cop’s official title in CA? • Peace Officer (PC § 830.1) • High priority of maintaining Peace and Order in society • Enforcement of Quality-of-Life Offenses • Minor or “petty” offenses that tend to disrupt maintenance of peaceful existence • Disturbing the Peace (415 PC) • Loitering/Panhandling • Vandalism/Graffiti • Public Drinking/Intoxication/Drug Use • Broken Windows Theory
Serving the Community • Direct public access to police services just a phone call away! • 10%-20% of calls actual emergencies, majority are “calls for service” • Lost and found • Minor accidents • Barking dogs, other disturbances • Suspicious persons/circumstances • Check the welfare
Levels of Police Jurisdiction • Federal Departments (page 115) • Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Homeland Security, Interior, Justice, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, US Postal Service • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) • Mission Statement • Protect and defend US against terrorist threats • Uphold and enforce criminal laws • Provide leadership and criminal justice services • 56 field offices, 400 satellite offices
Levels of Police Jurisdiction • State-Level Agencies • Most state police agencies formed as link between federal and local jurisdictions • CA State Police Agencies • ABC, CHP, Fish & Game, State Parks, State University Police
Levels of Police Jurisdiction • Local Agencies • City (Police) and County (Sheriff) departments responsible for local law enforcement services • Police primary jurisdiction within city limits • Sheriff primary jurisdiction within unincorporated areas of county • Some smaller cities contract with local Sheriff for police services • Sheriff responsible for jail operations, prisoner transportation, and court services
Police Administration • Management responsible for • Directing, coordinating, controlling… • Personnel, resources, and activities… • In crime prevention, apprehension of criminals, recovery of stolen property, and community service • Managers are usually sworn personnel who have promoted to higher ranks
Police Organization and Structure • Line Operations • Field Operations • Activities devoted to day-to-day police work • Staff Operations • Support Services • Administration, Human Resources, Training • Chain-of-Command • Hierarchical line of communication and authority between higher and lower levels (ranks) • Quasi-military structure and organization • Span-of-Control • Number of personnel or units under one supervisor’s authority
Epochs of Policing(Refer to chart, page 126) • Political Era: 1840’s–1930’s • Police served interests of politicians in power • Spoils Era • Reform Era: 1930’s–1970’s • “Professional” model of policing removed police from political influence • Vollmer’s reforms • Community-Policing Era: 1970’s–Present Day • Focus on needs of Community • Cooperative effort, working with community • Homeland-Security Era: 2001–Present Day • Focus on prevention of terrorism • Increased cooperation between agencies/jurisdictions
Policing Styles • Watchman Style • Concern for law-and-order maintenance • Crime control more important than crime prevention • Legalistic Style • Strict enforcement of Letter of the Law • May ignore other “social” problems • Service Style • Focus on “helping” rather than strict enforcement • Social-assistance, drug-treatment programs, etc.
Police-Community Relations • Evolved out of civil unrest of 1960’s • Effort to re-unite Police and Community • Police and Community must work together • Police derive legitimacy from Community • Focus on positive Police-Community relations • Less emphasis on apprehending criminals • PCR Programs • Crime Prevention/Property Identification • Neighborhood Watch • Drug Awareness • Victims’ Assistance
Team Policing • Developed in 60’s and 70’s as extension of PCR model • Maintained specific “team” of officers in same geographical area (beat) • Benefits? • Beat integrity • Familiarization with people/area • Trust and cooperation • Officers allowed to handle full investigations
Evolution of Community Policing • Strategic Policing • Traditional goal of enforcement using innovative enforcement techniques • Intelligence, Undercover Ops., Surveillance, Forensics • Problem-Oriented Policing • Address underlying social problems as contributors to crime/criminal behavior • Cooperation between agencies to attack overall problem • Community Policing • Based on cooperative partnership between Police and Community • Attempt to reduce crime/fear of crime and improve quality of life for members of community
Community Policing • Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act (1994) • Funding, Training, Technology • Goals of Community Policing • Police and Community work together • Identify/address needs of Community • Allow Community more say in prioritizing problems and how Police respond to them • Proactive vs. Reactive approach to crime • DOJ created COPS to administer funds • 100,000 CP Officers by 1999 • Additional $500 million made available for 50,000 more • 2002: “Homeland Security through Community Policing”
Obstacles to Community Policing • Some communities/community members remain dissatisfied with police services • Distrustful of changes • Disagreement over priority of community needs • Power of Police Subculture • Some departments/officers unwilling to change from traditional roles of LE • Still see primary role as crime fighter and success measured by number of arrests, citations, etc. • May offer CP programs but not truly supportive • Resentment and hostility sometimes mutual
Law Enforcement Support • LEAA (1969-1982) • Attempt to combat crime through funding of crime prevention programs • Expired after $8 billion spent/no significant impact • Scientific Police Management (1970’s) • Application of social sciences to police administration • Increase police effectiveness • Decrease citizen complaints • Enhance use of available resources • Evidence-Based Policing (EBP) • Using research as evidence for evaluating police practices and to guide decision-making
Kansas City Experiment (1974) • Year-long study of Preventive Patrol • Southern part of city divided into 15 beats • 5 = no change in patrol services • 5 = patrol officers/services doubled • 5 = no patrol service, response to calls only • Citizens not notified of experiment/changes • Results • No impact on preventable crimes • Citizens unaware of change in patrol services • No impact on fear of crime, per citizen survey • Effects • Directed Patrol • Call Prioritization
Discretion of Individual Officers • The opportunity to exercise choice in daily activities and decisions • Where/how to patrol • Who to stop/detain • When to warn/cite/arrest • Discretion of individual officers is arguably more important than department policy!
Factors That AffectDiscretionary Decision-Making • Officer’s background • Personal values, prejudices, etc. • Suspect’s characteristics • Age, gender, socio-economic status, etc. • Department policy • Strict, loose, mandatory arrests, etc. • Community interest • Concerns with certain behaviors/crimes
Factors That AffectDiscretionary Decision-Making • Pressure from victims • Cooperative, uncooperative, victim assistance • Disagreement with certain laws • Public opinion, minor violations • Available alternatives • Treatment programs, counseling services • Personal beliefs/practices of officer • Off-duty behavior may affect outlook