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How a Tree Grows. J.G. Mexal H/R 302 Spring 2005. Forestry & Society How a Tree Grows-. Trees are the 2nd largest organism- E ucalyptus Sequoia Trees are the oldest organism-bristlecone pine (5,000 yrs) Norway spruce (9,550 yrs)

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how a tree grows

How a Tree Grows

J.G. Mexal

H/R 302

Spring 2005

forestry society how a tree grows
Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows-
  • Trees are the 2nd largest organism- Eucalyptus

Sequoia

  • Trees are the oldest organism-bristlecone pine (5,000 yrs)

Norway spruce (9,550 yrs)

  • They can grow: as much as 25 ft/yr as little as 25 mm/yr (1”)
  • They can survive: 10 ft of precipitation 10 in of precipitation
  • They can survive: >100oF temperatures <-50oF temperatures
trees live a long time
Alder

White birch

Sugar maple

Oak

Douglas-fir

Bristlecone pine

Norway spruce

25 yrs

50 yrs

300 yrs

>500 yrs

>700 yrs

>2,000 yrs

>9,000 yrs

Trees live a long time!
forestry society how a tree grows1
Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows-
  • What does your tree look like?
    • A 100 ft tree weighs about 4,000 lbs
    • Has > 200,000 leaves (~120 lbs)
      • Will shed 3,600 lbs of leaves in a lifetime
    • Produce >5,000 seeds/yr
    • Have 1,300 lbs of roots
    • Require
      • 8,000 lbs of CO2
      • 2,900 lbs of H2O for Ps, and 5,000,000 lbs for Ts
    • Generate over 8,000 lbs O2
slide6

Trees in the forest grow with one trunk, and codominant stems toward the top of the tree

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

forestry society comparison between forest tree and landscape tree
Forestry & SocietyComparison between forest tree and landscape tree

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide8

Genetic

Information

Environmental Conditions

Physiological Processes

Tree Growth

Factors affecting tree growth

forestry society how a tree grows functions

Bark

Cambium

Earlywood

Heartwood

Latewood

Sapwood

Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows-Functions
  • Seed- reproduction
  • Leaves- photosynthesis (carbon capture)
  • Roots- water & nutrient uptake
  • Bark- protection
  • Cambium/buds-growth
  • Xylem- water transport (up) [dead]
  • Phloem- carbohydrate transport (down)
slide11

Our secondary growth model:

A typical hardwood tree in cross section (transverse surface).

What can you identify?

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide12

The Bark:

The bark is everything outside the vascular cambium.

As you can see, there is a lot going on in the bark.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide13

The Bark: periderm:

Periderms form the outer bark.

They are subdivided further.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide14

The Bark: periderm: phellogen (cork cambium):

The phellogen is the region of cell division that forms the periderm tissues.

Phellogen development influences bark appearance.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide15

The Bark: periderm: phellem (cork):

Phellem replaces the epidermis as the tree increases in girth.

Photosynthesis can take place in some trees both through the phellem and in fissures.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide16

The Bark: periderm: phelloderm:

Phelloderm is active parenchyma tissue.

Parenchyma cells can be used for storage, photosynthesis, defense, and even cell division!

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide17

The Bark: phloem:

Phloem tissue makes up the inner bark.

However, it is vascular tissue formed from the vascular cambium.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide18

The Bark: phloem: sieve tube elements:

Sieve tube elements actively transport photosynthates down the stem.

Conifers have sieve cells instead.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide19

The Bark: phloem: companion cells:

Companion cells provide sieve tube elements with needed metabolites.

Conifers have albuminous cells instead.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide20

The cambium:

The cambium is the primary meristem producing radial growth.

It forms the phloem & xylem.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide21

The Xylem (wood):

The xylem includes everything inside the vascular cambium.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide22

The Xylem: a growth increment (ring):

The rings seen in many trees represent one growth increment.

Growth rings provide the texture seen in wood.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide23

The Xylem: vessel elements:

Hardwood species have vessel elements in addition to trachieds.

Notice their location in the growth rings of this tree

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide24

The Xylem: fibers:

Fibers are cells with heavily lignified walls making them stiff.

Many fibers in sapwood are alive at maturity and can be used for storage.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide25

The Xylem: axial parenchyma:

Axial parenchyma is living tissue!

Remember that parenchyma cells can be used for storage and cell division.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

slide26

The Xylem: rays (multiserrate & uniserrate):

Rays are radial parenchyma cells.

Parenchyma cells give rise to adventitious tissues.

Source: Ed Gilman, IFAS

forestry society how a tree grows diffuse vs ring porous
Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows/Diffuse vs Ring Porous

Silver Maple

White Oak

Ring Porous

Diffuse Porous

50X

forestry society how a tree grows idealized
Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows-Idealized

Leaves

leaves

A tree can produce

200,000 leaves/yr

fruit

Fruit

Annual rings

Taproot

Lateral root

forestry society shoot growth in eastern white pine
Forestry & SocietyShoot Growth in Eastern White Pine

Terminal growth = 44 cm

Lateral branch = 26 cm

2o lateral = 12 cm

Lateral branch = 19 cm

Lateral branch = 14 cm

2o lateral = 10 cm

3o lateral = 6 cm

2o lateral = 10 cm

biomass partitioning nelda methany 2005
Biomass Partitioning/Nelda Methany 2005

Percent

100

90%

Wood

35%

35%

30%

Leaves/Roots

5%

5%

Fine Roots

3

7

20

55

Time (yrs)

forestry society how a tree grows2
Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows
  • Growing regions or meristems
    • Buds- height, flowers, leaves, (roots)
    • Cambium- diameter
    • Cork cambium - bark
  • Factors
    • Temperature
    • Light
    • Water

Tropics vs

Boreal

where a tree grows

Dry tropical forest

Desert

Tropical forest

Where a tree grows!!

20”

80”

140”

oF

86

59

32

forestry society urban forestry co 2 capture
Forestry & SocietyUrban ForestryCO2 capture

Basic Photosynthetic Reaction

  • CO2 + H2O CH2O + O2
  • 1.47 lb 0.60 lb 1.00 lb 1.07 lb

λ

slide36

clear day

overcast day

Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows/ Kozlowski & Pallardy 1999

forestry society how a tree grows3
Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows
  • Most forests are regenerated sexually
    • seeds are required
    • exceptions: aspen, oak, eucalyptus
  • Environmental factors:
    • light (forest gap)
    • moisture (mineral soil)
    • temperature (dormancy & germination)
forestry society how a tree grows pi on
Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows - Piñon
  • Flower primordia (buds) form in fall (yr-1)
  • Flowers develop in spring (yr-2)
  • Pollination occurs
  • Overwinter
  • Fertilization occurs in spring (yr-3)
  • Growth of cone
  • Maturation of cone with seeds in fall
  • Total time elapsed >24 mo.

Drought

forestry society how a tree grows female cones
Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows-female cones

Pinus elliotii (slash pine)

maturation

fertilization

pollination

24 mo.

12 mo.

1 mo.

slide42

Forestry and SocietyPinus eldarica cone

Rachis

Viable seed

Empty seed

Bract

forestry and society pine seed size variation
Forestry and SocietyPine seed size variation

wing

Pinus pinea (Italian stone pine)

Pinus nigra (Japanese black pine)

forestry society how a tree grows germination
Seed is dispersed

Overwinters (dormant)

Germinates

Growth commences

10,000,000/ac

4,000,000/ac

4,000/ac @ 25 yrs

100/ac @ 100 yrs

Forestry & SocietyHow a Tree Grows-Germination

Nothofagus in Chile

0.001%

ponderosa pine seed rain following harvest co wjaf 21 1 19 06
Ponderosa pine seed rain following harvest-CO /WJAF 21(1):19:06

Logged ’80-’81 winter

Seeds/m2

Seedlings/m2

~48% of seed consumed

by animals regardless

of year

Year

forestry society xylem production earlywood vs latewood
Forestry & SocietyXylem production- earlywood vs latewood

Phloem

3,4 = Latewood cells

1,2 = Developing xylem cells

5 = Earlywood cells

L = Preceeding year

forestry society silviculture response to thinning
Forestry & SocietySilviculture/Response to Thinning

Juniper/NM

False rings

Wider rings

10 mm

Competition

slide49

Earlywood

Eruption occurs June 8, 1783

Latewood

No Latewood, indicating very

early onset of winter

Forestry & SocietyDendrochronology/Skaptar Jokull Volcano eruption in Iceland causes ‘the summer that wasn’t’ in western Alaska. (http://abcnews.go.com/sections/science/DyeHard/dyehard.html)

review questions
Review Questions
  • Define: xylem, conifer, phloem, hardwood, cambium, softwood, cord, evergreen, board foot, deciduous, basal area, MAI, CAI, PAI, closed forest, earlywood (spring wood), latewood (summer wood), dendrochronology, false ring
  • What environmental factors affect seed production germination? Why does piñon have good seed crops every 4-5 years?
  • Describe the basic process of photosynthesis.
  • Why do trees produce so many seed, yet so few germinate?