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SCALE: 1” = 1”. ROBOT DESIGN CONCEPTS. DRAWING:. THE INCOMPARABLE. Humphrey Hu. MVRT. VINTAGE 2005. MANIPULATOR DESIGN. WHAT IS A MANIPULATOR ? ANYTHING THAT A ROBOT CAN USE TO INTERACT WITH THE ENVIRONMENT IS CONSIDER A MANIPULATOR .

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slide1

SCALE: 1” = 1”

ROBOT DESIGN CONCEPTS

DRAWING:

THE INCOMPARABLE

Humphrey Hu

MVRT

VINTAGE 2005

slide2

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • WHAT IS A MANIPULATOR?
  • ANYTHING THAT A ROBOT CAN USE TO INTERACT WITH THE ENVIRONMENT IS CONSIDER A MANIPULATOR.
  • THESE GENERALLY TAKE THE FORM OF ARMS AND OTHER APPENDAGES, BUT ALSO INCLUDE THINGS SUCH AS GIANT RAMPS AND FLIPPERS.
  • REMEMBER: MORE COMPLEX IS NOT ALWAYS BETTER! A GOOD, PRACTICAL IDEA IS MORE USEFUL THAN A BRILLIANT IDEA THAT BREAKS DOWN EVERY OTHER ROUND.
slide3

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • ODDLY ENOUGH, LEAST IMPORTANT COMPONENT:
  • THOUGH IT WOULD SEEM THE #1 PRIORITY, A ROBOT THAT CAN MOVE ITSELF AND STAY IN 1 PIECE IS MORE VALUABLE THAN ONE THAT CAN WAVE A STICK AROUND.
  • IMPORTANT FUNCTIONALITY POINTS TO CONSIDER:
    • PROPERLY ADAPTED TO THE GAME AND GAME STRATEGY
    • DOES NOT COMPROMISE DRIVING AND STRUCTURE OF ROBOT
    • MAINTAINABLE AND FEASIBLE
slide4

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • MORE THINGS TO CONSIDER:
  • REMEMBER ABOUT WEIGHT! THOUGH THE MANIPULATOR IS GENERALLY THE HEAVIEST ELEMENT OF A ROBOT, AN EXCEPTIONALLY HEAVY ARM, FOR EXAMPLE, IS MUCH HARDER TO MOVE
  • USE THE PROPER MOTORS FOR THE JOB! OVERLOADING MOTORS WILL CAUSE THE BREAKERS TO SNAP IN THE MIDDLE OF MOVING AN OBJECTIVE
  • MANIPULATORS SHOULD EXEMPLIFY “SIMPLE IS BETTER” TO THE FULLEST; IT MAKES THE MECHANICS HAPPIER
slide5

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR DESIGN ELEMENTS:
  • THE MOUNT
    • ALLOWS MANIPULATOR TO BE SECURELY MOUNTED TO THE CHASSIS
    • REMEMBER: IF YOURE GOING TO BE DOING UNIT CONVERTING, HERE’S THE PLACE TO DO IT
  • THE STRUCTURE
    • THE ‘BONES’ OF THE MANIPULATOR
    • THE MOTORS WILL GENERALLY BE MOUNTED ON OR POWER THE STRUCTURE
slide6

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR DESIGN ELEMENTS:
  • THE FRAME
    • “OUTLINE” OF ROBOT.
    • SHOULD BE MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS.
    • MUST BE DURABLE; WILL DEFINITELY EXPERIENCE COLLISIONS IN PLAY.
    • CONSIDER WHERE AND ON WHICH TIER/LEVEL YOUR FRAME WILL HAVE PRESSURE APPLIED
slide7

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR DESIGN ELEMENTS:
  • THE MOTORS
    • ENABLE THE MANIPULATOR TO MOVE
    • MOTION CAN BE TRANSFERRED FROM MOTOR TO AXIS OF MOTION WITH BELTS, CHAINS, AND GEARS
    • SHOULD BE ABLE TO MOVE THE MANIPULATOR EASILY WITHOUT BLOWING UP
slide8

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR TYPES:
  • THE ARM
    • MOST COMMONLY SEEN WITH A WIDE VARIETY OF USES
    • ESSENTIALLY CONSISTS OF A PROTRUSION WHICH IS ASSEMBLED ONTO TO THE CHASSIS BY A BASE MOUNT AND MAY CONTAIN OTHER JOINTS, EACH AN AXIS OF ROTATION
    • CAN BE USED TO MANEUVER OTHER DEVICES, ENABLING THE ARM TO BE VERY VERSATILE DEPENDING ON DESIGN
    • FRAGILE LIKE MOST MANIPULATORS
four bar advantages disadvantages
Four Bar - Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Advantages
    • Great For Fixed Heights
    • On/Off Control
    • Lift Can Be Counter-Balanced or Spring Loaded to Reduce the Load on Actuator
    • Good candidate for Pnuematic or Screw actuation
  • Disadvantages
    • Need Clearance in Front During Lift
    • Can’t Go Under Obstacles Lower Than Retracted Lift
    • Got to Watch CG
    • If Pnuematic, only two positions, Up and Down
  • Counterbalance if you can

Courtesy of Chief Delphi

slide10

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR TYPES:
  • THE ELEVATOR
    • NOT NEARLY AS COMMON AS THE ARM; HARDER TO DESIGN EFFECTIVELY
    • GOOD AT EXTENDING OUTWARDS; USUALLY VERTICALLY
    • MOST OFTEN CONSISTS OF SUPPORT RAILS WHICH HOUSE OTHER SLIDING RAILS, WHICH ARE PULLED UP AND DOWN BY A PULLEY SYSTEM
    • AN ENTIRE ELEVATOR ASSEMBLY CAN BE TURNED INTO AN ARM TO ALLOW EXTENSION IN A NON VERTICAL DIRECTION
forklift advantages disadvantages
Forklift - Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Advantages
    • Can reach higher than you want to go
    • On/Off Control
    • Can be rigid
    • Can be Actuated via Screw, Cable, or Pnuematics, though all involve some cabling
  • Disadvantages
    • Stability issues at extreme heights
    • Can’t Go Under Obstacles Lower Than Retracted Lift

Courtesy of Chief Delphi

slide12

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR TYPES:
  • THE RAMP
    • BASICALLY JUST AN ANGLED SHEET
    • GOOD FOR DEFENDING AN AREA; ALLOWS OTHER BOTS TO TIP THEMSELVES!
    • CAN ALSO BE USED TO HAVE ALLIANCE (OR COMPETING) BOTS DRIVE ON TOP OF YOU
    • USUALLY MUST DEPLOY BY FOLDING DOWN AT BEGINNING OF MATCH DUE TO SIZE LIMITS
slide13

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR TYPES:
  • THE STATIC PROTRUSION
    • INCLUDES ANYTHING THAT DOES NOT MOVE IN RELATION TO THE ROBOT CHASSIS AS A WHOLE
    • GENERALLY CONSISTS OF GRABBERS OR OTHER DEVICES MOUNTED ON THE END OF A STICK
    • CAN ALSO DEPLOY LIKE RAMPS SHOULD SIZE BECOME AN ISSUE
slide14

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE SIMPLE ARM
    • A STICK ON AN AXIS OF ROTATION, GENERALLY WITH A DEVICE OR HOOK ON THE END
    • USUALLY ONLY ROTATES IN 1 DIMENSION
    • GOOD FOR SIMPLE OBJECT MANIPULATION, SUCH AS BUMPING OR MOVING AROUND
    • SIMPLE AND EASY TO FIX AS ARMS GO
slide16

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE 2D COMPLEX ARM
    • A SIMPLE ARM WITH MORE JOINTS, HOWEVER ALL ROTATING IN THE SAME DIRECTION
    • USEFUL FOR MORE PRECISION OBJECT MANIPULATING OR NON-LINEAR OBJECT MOTION
    • MORE DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN AND MECHANIZE THAN A SIMPLE ARM
    • ALSO MORE FRAGILE AND HEAVIER
slide17

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE 3D COMPLEX (ARTICULATED) ARM
    • A SIMPLE ARM WITH MORE JOINTS, HOWEVER ROTATING IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS
    • USEFUL FOR MORE PRECISION OBJECT MANIPULATING OR NON-LINEAR OBJECT MOTION WITHOUT HAVING TO ROTATE THE WHOLE ROBOT
    • MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN AND MECHANIZE THAN A SIMPLE ARM
    • ALSO MORE FRAGILE, HEAVIER, AND HARD TO DESIGN
slide20

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE SIMPLE PINCER ARMS
    • 2 SIMPLE ARMS MOUNTED TO ROTATE INTO EACH OTHER IN A ‘PINCER’ ACTION
    • USEFUL FOR GRABBING OBJECTIVES WHEN ACCURACY IS NOT AN ISSUE
    • SHOULD FOLD INTO CHASSIS NICELY IN ORDER TO NOT CONFLICT WITH MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS
slide22

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE SINGLE-STAGE ELEVATOR
    • AN ELEVATOR WITH ONE SET OF SLIDING RAILS
    • USUALLY HEAVIER THAN ARMS
    • GENERALLY HARDER TO TUNE PROPERLY AND PREVENT BINDING
    • BINDING IS WHEN THE SLIDING RAILS IN AN ELEVATOR ARE NOT PROPERLY ALIGNED AND ‘BIND’ TO THE RAILS
slide23

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE MULTIPLE-STAGE ELEVATOR
    • AN ELEVATOR WITH MORE SETS OF SLIDING RAILS
    • ADDS WEIGHT BUT ALSO ADDS TO MAXIMUM EXTENDED HEIGHT AND STRENGTH
    • GENERALLY HARDER TO MACHINE AND ASSEMBLE DUE TO MULTIPLE PULLEYS AND CABLE TENSION REQUIREMENTS
slide24

Rails

Stages

slide25

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE STATIC RAMP
    • NOT A TRUE MANIPULATOR IN THE SENSE THAT IT IS BUILT INTO THE CHASSIS
    • EITHER HAS HIGHER INCLINE OR OBSTRUCTS INTERNAL SPACE
    • MAY ALLOW FOR A FURTHER MANIPULATOR TO BE MOUNTED ON TOP OF CHASSIS
slide27

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE DEPLOYABLE RAMP
    • DEPLOYS FROM A VERTICAL POSITION TO ALLOW GREATER RAMP AREA WHILE NOT OBSTRUCTING CHASSIS SPACE
    • INCLINE CONSTRAINED BY MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF ROBOT
    • DEPLOYMENT SHOULD BE SIMPLE AND NOT REQUIRE MORE THAN 1 MOTOR, IF ANY
slide28

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE STATIC CLAW
    • CONSISTS OF A CLAW MOUNTED ON THE END OF A CHASSIS PROTRUSION
    • USEFUL FOR GRABBING OBJECTIVE COMPONENTS, SUCH AS PVC PIPING OR BARS
    • DIFFERENT TYPE OF CLAWS FOR DIFFERENT OBJECTS
    • MAY CAUSE CHASSIS TO BE LESS THAN MAXIMUM DIMENSIONS IF NOT DEPLOYABLE
slide30

MANIPULATOR DESIGN

  • COMMON MANIPULATOR SUBTYPES:
  • THE STATIC BUMPER
    • CONSISTS OF A BUMPER OR PROTRUSION ON THE CHASSIS
    • USED FOR ‘BUMPING’ OBJECTIVES OR AS A DEFENSIVE COMPONENT
    • THINK OF A WALL ON WHEELS, SHOULD THE NEED ARISE