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Chapter 10. Sports Psychology. Objectives. Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to: Discuss the importance of sports psychology to athletic performance Describe goal setting and its effect on motivation Draw up a personal goal-setting program

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Chapter 10 l.jpg

Chapter 10

Sports Psychology


Objectives l.jpg
Objectives

  • Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to:

    • Discuss the importance of sports psychology to athletic performance

    • Describe goal setting and its effect on motivation

    • Draw up a personal goal-setting program

    • Explain the difference between imagery and simulation


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Objectives (cont’d.)

  • Upon completion of this chapter, you should be able to (cont’d.):

    • Explain the benefits and dangers of stress

    • Discuss the dangers of burnout

    • Describe career opportunities in the field of sports psychology


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Sports Psychology

  • Study of sport and exercise, and mental factors influencing performance

  • Mind, body, and athletic performance connection is powerful

    • Often said that performance in a sport is 95% mental


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Sports Psychology (cont’d.)

  • Sport psychologists can help athletes develop:

    • Goals

    • Self-confidence

    • Motivation

    • Positive self-image

    • Strategies to cope with stress and disappointment


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Motivation

  • Internal state or condition that activates or energizes behavior and give it direction

    • Extrinsic

      • Driven by some type of external reward

    • Intrinsic

      • Require no external support or reinforcement


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Goal Setting

  • With goals in mind, the individual can:

    • Achieve more

    • Improve performance

    • Improve the quality of training

    • Increase motivation to achieve at a higher level

    • Increase pride and satisfaction in performance

    • Improve self-confidence


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Goal Setting (cont’d.)

  • Research has shown that people who use goal setting effectively:

    • Suffer less from stress and anxiety

    • Concentrate better

    • Show more self-confidence

    • Perform better

    • Are happier with their performances


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Goal Setting (cont’d.)

  • Guidelines:

    • Express goals positively

    • Set priorities

    • Document goals

    • Use operational goals

    • Set performance goals, not outcome goals

    • Set specific goals

    • Set goals at the right level

    • Set short-term and long-term goals


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Imagery and Simulation

  • Imagery:

    • Training process done purely within the mind

    • Helps create, modify, or strengthen neurological pathways important to muscle coordination

    • Imagination is the driving force

    • Allows athletes to practice and prepare for events

    • Can help “slow down” complex skills


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Imagery and Simulation (cont’d.)

  • Simulation:

    • Seeks to improve quality of training by teaching the brain to cope with circumstances that will not be encountered until competition

    • Carried out by making physical training circumstances as close as possible to real competition


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Strategies to Cope with Stress and Disappointment

  • Stress can be healthy

    • Helps to increase awareness, maintain a clearer focus, increase motivation, and filter out distractions

  • Too much stress can hinder performance


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Strategies to Cope with Stress and Disappointment (cont’d.)

  • Transitional stress typically occurs when:

    • Beginning a new sport

    • Going from high school to college

    • Changing leagues

    • Changing levels of competition

    • Going from junior high to high school

    • Going from college to professional

    • Retiring from athletics


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Strategies to Cope with Stress and Disappointment (cont’d.)

  • Injury

    • Can be devastating to the motivated athlete

  • Burnout

    • Physically and mentally challenging

    • Manifests as dropping out of a sport and quitting an activity that was once enjoyable


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Strategies to Cope with Stress and Disappointment (cont’d.)

  • Ways to manage stress:

    • Goal setting

    • Meditation

    • Positive thinking

    • Time management

    • Talking with friends

    • Taking breaks


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Self-Confidence (cont’d.)

  • Reflects athlete’s assessment of his or her own self-worth

  • Allows athletes to take risks because they have belief in their own abilities

  • Consistent failure can lead to a lack of self-esteem


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Self-Confidence (cont’d.) (cont’d.)

  • Confidence should be based on observed reality

    • Overconfidence and underconfidence are both damaging


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Careers in Sports Psychology (cont’d.)

  • Educational sports psychology

    • Emphasizes working with athletes in an educational environment

  • Clinical sports psychology

    • Treats athletes in a clinical setting

  • Academic sports psychology

    • Focuses on research and teaching


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Conclusion (cont’d.)

  • Sports psychology is the study of the mental factors influencing performance in sport and exercise

  • Goal setting can help the athlete attain greater success by focusing his or her energy in a positive, measurable way


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