Motivation and Resilience Lorraine Hirst
What is resilience? • Often termed as ‘bounce-back’, resilience is the ‘grit’ we have to keep going when we face adversity or stress. • A simple model of resilience is known as ABC (Adversity, Beliefs and Consequences). • We can have internal and external resilience. • There are many protective factors for resilience and there are risk factors that can hinder resilience.
More about Resilience Co-founder and Program Director of the Center for Learning Connections, Dr. Cal Crow identified several additional attributes that are common in resilient people: • Resilient people have a positive image of the future. That is, they maintain a positive outlook, and envision brighter days ahead. • Resilient people have solid goals, and a desire to achieve those goals. • Resilient people are empathetic and compassionate, however, they don't waste time worrying what others think of them. They maintain healthy relationships, but don't bow to peer pressure. • Resilient people do not think of themselves as victims - they focus their time and energy on changing the things that they have control over.
‘The bamboo that bends is stronger than the oak that resists.’ - Japanese proverb
Protective Factors – School Age School Age – Resilience Factors (Daniel and Wassell, 2002)
Protective Factors - Adolescents Adolescent – Resilience Factors – (Daniel and Wassell, 2002)
What is motivation? • Definition: ‘Motivation is defined as the process that initiates, guides and maintains goal-oriented behaviors. Motivation is what causes us to act, whether it is getting a glass of water to reduce thirst or reading a book to gain knowledge. It involves the biological, emotional, social and cognitive forces that activate behavior.’ – Kendra Cherry, About.com • True motivation comes from an inner voice and not from an external source (intrinsic motivation) • Sometimes children will become ‘compliant’ to please an adult or to bow to peer pressure, this is extrinsic motivation and works some of the time • So, how do we nuture this intrinsic motivation?
Carol Dweck – Growth Mindset Lack of motivation may come from afixed mindset: • Proving, mistakes are bad, effort adverse, comparative/ competitive, inaccurate self-image Growth mindset:The notion that ability is expandable: • Improving • Adventurous learning • Failure/ mistakes are useful • Effort is pleasurable • Resilient - determined
What motivates us? These traditional things create Motivation 1: • Rewards/ incentives (Extrinsic motivation)- for simple straight-forward tasks. N.B. when task requires conceptual or creative thinking rewards, including money, do not work so well. • Punishment (Away from an undesired behaviour) - traditional These create Motivation 2 (Intrinsic motivation): • Self-direction/ autonomy • Mastery – we do things for fun and so we get better at them • Purpose – doing things that have meaning or that help others (Daniel Pink, ‘Drive’)
Ideas for encouraging motivation As mentors: • Praise the effort, not the end result (See ‘How not to Talk to Kids) Help children and young people to: • View failure as learning • Keep a focus on what you can control, not what you cannot control (locus of control) • Be curious and adventurous • Set goals • Positive self-image and self-esteem • Self-efficacy (what am I good at/ enjoy)
Way2be.me Approach The overall Way2be.me objectives for children are to: • Know yourself and your strengths (valuing yourself and your qualities) • Recognize and manage your emotions • Set and achieve positive goals • Know how to get and give support • Establish and maintain positive relationships • Handle interpersonal situations well • Make decisions based on resourceful and flexible thinking • To be able to manage risks • Have a positive image of my future self These all support motivation…
Whatever!! • We’re often told by teachers that, ‘it’s all about the attitude.’ What about the teachers attitude? • How we react to children and young people will affect how they in turn react. • Ego States – Parent, Adult, Child (aiming to be nurturing and structuring) • Transactions with children – injunctions and permissions (Refer to Factsheet 1)
Resources • www.way2be.me • Paula C Dirkes, ‘Mentor Me!’ • Carol Dweck, ‘Growth Mindset’ • Bill Lucas, ‘New Kinds of Smart’ • Daniel Pink, ‘Drive’ http://www.youtube.com/watchv=u6XAPnuFjJc • www.boingboing.org.uk
Final thought Reinforcing the “natural (positive) social bonds between young and old, between siblings, between friends that give meaning to one’s life and a reason for commitment and caring. To neglect these bonds is to risk the survival of a culture” - Werner and Smith, 1982