Jim Crow and Segregation in the South. As Reconstruction ended, African American dreams of equality and justice faded. By the 1880s, racism and segregation took a strong hold in Southern states (Northern states also harbored discrimination, but not as pronounced as in the South).
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Southern States passed laws to get around the
(15th Amendment: states could not deny an individual
the right to vote because of race, color, or previous
Many African Americans could not pay the fee, thus they could not vote.
(this also kept poor whites from voting)
to read difficult parts of the State or U.S. Constitution and
Many African Americans
had little education and
could not read the
thus they could not vote
did not pass the literacy test to vote if their father or grandfather had voted before Reconstruction
African Americans could not vote until 1867 (after Reconstruction),so these laws excluded African Americans
enacted as early as 1870, but became widespread after 1889.
By 1890, segregation was a prominent feature of life in the South
The term Jim Crow originated in a song performed by Daddy Rice, a white minstrel show entertainer in the 1830s. Rice covered his face with charcoal paste or burnt cork to resemble a black man, and then sang and danced a routine in caricature of a silly black person. By the 1850s, this Jim Crow character, one of several stereotypical images of black inferiority in the nation's popular culture, was a standard act in the minstrel shows of the day. How it became a term synonymous with the brutal segregation and disfranchisement of African Americans in the late nineteenth-century is unclear. What is clear, however, is that by 1900, the term was generally identified with those racist laws and actions that deprived African Americans of their civil rights by defining blacks as inferior to whites, as members of a caste of subordinate people.
“It shall be unlawful for a negro and white person to play together or in company with each other in any game of cards or dice, dominoes or checkers.”—Birmingham, Alabama, 1930
“Marriages are void when one party is a white person and the other is possessed of one-eighth or more negro, Japanese, or Chinese blood.”—Nebraska, 1911
“Separate free schools shall be established for the education of children of African descent; and it shall be unlawful for any colored child to attend any white school, or any white child to attend a colored school.”—Missouri, 1929
“All railroads carrying passengers in the state (other than street railroads) shall provide equal but separate accommodations for the white and colored races, by providing two or more passenger cars for each passenger train, or by dividing the cars by a partition, so as to secure separate accommodations.”—Tennessee, 1891
“The Corporate Commission is hereby vested with power to require telephone companies in the State of Oklahoma to maintain separate booths for white and colored patrons when there is a demand for such separate booths.”—Oklahoma, 1915
Ferguson was the judge in the Louisiana case who said Plessy was guilty of violating the “Separate Car Law”
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)