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Washington & Adams:. Presidents #1 & #2. Student Goals. You should be able to: Outline the steps that GW had to take to form a new government Explain how the first two political parties were formed and what their differences in philosophy were

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washington adams

Washington & Adams:

Presidents #1 & #2

student goals
Student Goals

You should be able to:

  • Outline the steps that GW had to take to form a new government
  • Explain how the first two political parties were formed and what their differences in philosophy were
  • Explain what’s happening in Europe and how it is starting to impact the US
  • Explain why John Adams had such a difficult term in office
domestic issues
Domestic Issues
  • Pres. Washington
  • V.P. John Adams
  • Establishes the first presidential cabinet:
  • Alexander Hamilton (Sec. of the Treasury)
  • Thomas Jefferson (Sec. of State)
  • Henry Knox (Sec. of War)
  • Edmund Randolph (Attorney General)
  • Timothy Pickering (Postmaster General)
hamilton s economic plan
Hamilton’s Economic Plan
  • 1st priority = pay back all debts: (excise tax & a protective tariff)
  • Whiskey Rebellion = small distillers saw it as unfair
  • Larger distillers would pay a lower rate than the smaller distillers
  • Small distillers = 9 cents per gallon
  • Larger distillers = 6 cents per gallon
  • Farmers in western counties are upset
national supremacy
National Supremacy
  • Western farmers start to harass tax collectors
  • July 1794 = attack the Federal Marshall’s office in Allegheny County, Penn.
  • Pres. Washington calls up 13,000 troops led by Gen. Harry Lee (father of Robert E. Lee)
  • Establishes supremacy of the federal gov’t
the national bank
The National Bank
  • Created to establish monetary policy and regulate the banking industry
  • Hamilton believes that it will create a solid financial future
  • Jefferson opposes this
  • Claims that the Federal gov’t doesn’t have the authority
  • Beginnings of the 1st two political parties
  • Nat’l Bank created for a 20 year period
political parties
Political Parties

Jefferson & Madison = Democratic-Republicans (Jeffersonian Republicans)

  • Limited national government
  • Strict Interpretation of the Constitution

Hamilton & Adams = Federalists

  • Strong national government
  • Loose Interpretation of the Constitution
foreign policy
Foreign Policy
  • Great Britain vs. France (engaged in a long, drawn out conflict)
  • Hamilton = support G.B.
  • Jefferson = support France
  • Washington = stay neutral
  • This conflict would eventually lead to the War of 1812
election of 1796
Election of 1796
  • John Adams (Federalist) = President
  • Thomas Jefferson (Dem.-Rep.) = V.P.
  • Throughout Adams presidency Jefferson does all that he can to undermine Adams

***Constitution does not take into consideration political parties

Eventually fixed by the 12th Amendment (1804)

president adams
President Adams
  • Took much criticism during his presidency
  • Continued policy of Neutrality
  • XYZ Affair – leads to lots of outrage towards the French
  • Many call for war against France
  • Feels the Army and Navy are too weak
  • Loses support within his own party
alien and sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts

Several new laws passed by the Federalists to silence opposition:

  • Citizenship requirement from 5 years to 14 years
  • The president had the right to imprison anyone who he deemed to be a threat
  • Numerous people are rounded up & imprisoned just because they criticize the Adams’ presidency
  • Becomes very unpopular – people see it as a clear violation of free speech
election of 1800
Election of 1800
  • Demo.-Rep. ~ Jefferson & Burr
  • Federalists ~ Adams & Pinckney
  • Each elector told to vote twice, once for president and for VP; however, there was no distinction between the two votes
  • Result ~ Tie between Jefferson and Burr
  • Election goes to the House of Rep’s
  • Jefferson is chosen as the new President
midnight appointments
Midnight Appointments
  • As Adams is leaving office, he is determined to have a lasting legacy
  • Federalists in Congress pass a bill creating a number of new judicial positions
  • Adams fills these seats with Federalist judges
  • Most importantly, John Marshall is appointed as the new Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
  • Some of the commissions go undelivered
  • Sets up a showdown ~ Marbury v. Madison
  • Judicial Review