CVE 311 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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CVE 311 ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

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  1. CVE 311ENGINEERING GEOLOGY ENGR S.O ODUNFA DEPT. OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE, ABEOKUTA

  2. Introduction • Engineering geology is the application of geology in design, construction and performance of civil engineering works

  3. Importance of engineering geology to in Civil engineering practices • To recognise potential difficult ground conditions prior to detailed design and construction • It helps to identify areas susceptible to failure due to geological hazards • To establish design specifications • To have best selection of site for engineering purposes • To have best selection of engineering materials for construction

  4. Geological Structures • These are the modified structures formed from primary structures due to the influence of tectonic forces on it. • It gives details about how inherent properties of rocks get modified , making them either suitable or unsuitable for civil engineering works. Emples are: Folds,Faults,Joints and • Uncomformities

  5. Not all rocks are suitable for the studies • The suitable rocks are: • Sand stones and shales – Sedimentary rock • Gneissses and schist ( to some extent) - Metamorphic rock

  6. Folds • They bend either upwards or down wards when a set of horizontal layers are subjected to compressive forces • Parts of fold: • Limbs or flanks - side of a fold • Crest and trough – the curved portions of fold at the top and bottom are called crest and trough respectively • Axial plane- Imaginary plane which divides the fold intotwo equal or nearly equal halves’ • Axis – Trace of intersection between the axialplane and the crest or trough of the fold • Wave length – The distance between the successive crest or trough

  7. Classifications and types of folds • Based on diifferent principles the folds are variously classified as • Symmmetrical and asymmetrical – symmetrical character • Anticline and syncline – upward or downward bend • Occurence of plunge – plunging and non-plunging • Uniformity of bend thickness – open and closed • Behaviour of the fold pattern with depth – similar and parellel

  8. Effects of Folds and their Engineering Importance • Location of dams • Location of reserviours • Location of tunnels • Quarrying • Ground water occurence • Roads and railways

  9. Faults • These are fractures along relative i.e parallel displacement of adjacent blocks taken place. • Parts of fault: • Fault plane The plane along which the adjacent blocks relatively displaced • Footwall and hanging wall • Heave and thtow • Slip

  10. Classification and Types of Faults • Translational and rotational faults – based on type of displacement along fault plane • Normal/Gravity and reverse/thrust, dextral faults – relative movement of the footwall and hanging wall • Strike and dip faults – type of slip involved