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  1. U.S. History-Honors Unit 9: The Civil Rights Movement (1950-1968) Chapters 28-31

  2. 1947 – Jackie Robinson becomes the first African-American to play major league baseball since 1884. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) Overrules Plessy v. Ferguson ruling “separate-but-equal” is unconstitutional in public schools since the facilities are inherently unequal In Brown II (1955) the court ruled that integration should begin “with all deliberate speed” Demands for Civil Rights Jackie Robinson Rev. Oliver Brown NAACP lawyers. Lead counsel Thurgood Marshall (center)

  3. First Day of Integration

  4. August 24, 1955 – 14-year old Emmett Till from Chicago was visiting his relatives in Money, MS. He whistles at a white store clerk named Carolyn Wright. Later that night Emmett is kidnapped from his home by Wright’s husband and his half-brother. He is brutally beaten, shot and thrown in the Tallahatchie River. They are later put on trial and acquitted in just 67 minutes. The body is found three days later and shipped back to Chicago. His mother decides to give her son an open casket. The Murder of Emmett Till

  5. The Murder of Emmett TillBefore and After

  6. Dec. 5, 1955 – NAACP secretary Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man. She was arrested. Local civil rights activists gather at the church of 26-year old minister Martin Luther King, Jr. and organize a boycott of the bus system until they change their segregation policy Boycott lasted 388 days costing the bus company tons of money, but they did not comply. Supreme Court ruled in 1956 that bus segregation was unconstitutional. Montgomery Bus Boycott Rosa Parks

  7. Brown and the Little Rock Nine

  8. Directions: Complete the graphic organizer below listing the Prominent civil rights organizations in the early 1960s and their goals and characteristics. (pgs. 936-940)

  9. Protesters sit at a segregated lunch counter or other public place. Over 70,000 students participated Forced business owners to serve the protesters or risk a disruption and loss of businesses Sit-ins

  10. Freedom Rides, 1961

  11. Boynton v. Virginia (1960) Supreme Court expands its ban on segregation on interstate busing. CORE decides to test whether southern states would obey the Supreme Court. Hundreds were arrested. Freedom Rides, 1961 • In Anniston, AL the bus’ tires were slashed, door closed and firebombed. • Riders managed to escape, but were beaten savagely as they exited the bus. • Violence shocks the nation resulting in the International Commerce Commission banning segregation in interstate transportation.

  12. 1962 – University of Mississippi is integrated 1963 – University of Alabama is integrated In both cases the governor literally blocked the entrance for blacks. The government sent in federal marshals to enforce integration. Higher Education Integration James Meredith – first black enrolled at Ole Miss

  13. June 1963 – President John F. Kennedy went on TV proclaiming “We preach freedom around the word, and we mean it, and we cherish our freedom, here at home, but are we to say to the world, and much more importantly, to each other that this is the land of the free except for the Negroes?...The time has come for this nation to fulfill its promise.” Hours later civil rights leader Medgar Evers was murdered outside his home in Mississippi Kennedy and Civil Rights Medgar Evers

  14. “Only a Pawn In Their Game” From the poverty shacks, he looks from the cracks to the tracks,And the hoof beats pound in his brain.And he's taught how to walk in a packShoot in the backWith his fist in a clinchTo hang and to lynchTo hide 'neath the hoodTo kill with no painLike a dog on a chainHe ain't got no nameBut it ain't him to blameHe's only a pawn in their game.Today, Medgar Evers was buried from the bullet he caught.They lowered him down as a king.But when the shadowy sun sets on the oneThat fired the gunHe'll see by his graveOn the stone that remainsCarved next to his nameHis epitaph plain:Only a pawn in their game. A bullet from the back of a bush took Medgar Evers' blood.A finger fired the trigger to his name.A handle hid out in the darkA hand set the sparkTwo eyes took the aimBehind a man's brainBut he can't be blamedHe's only a pawn in their game.A South politician preaches to the poor white man,"You got more than the blacks, don't complain.You're better than them, you been born with white skin," they explain.And the Negro's nameIs used it is plainFor the politician's gainAs he rises to fameAnd the poor white remainsOn the caboose of the trainBut it ain't him to blameHe's only a pawn in their game.The deputy sheriffs, the soldiers, the governors get paid,And the marshals and cops get the same,But the poor white man's used in the hands of them all like a tool.He's taught in his schoolFrom the start by the ruleThat the laws are with himTo protect his white skinTo keep up his hateSo he never thinks straight'Bout the shape that he's inBut it ain't him to blameHe's only a pawn in their game. Bob Dylan, 1963

  15. March on Washington August 1963 – 200,000 people attend the March on Washington to gain attention for JFK’s civil rights bill MLK delivers his “I Have a Dream” speech Civil Rights Act of 1964 Banned use of different voter registration standards for blacks and whites Prohibited discrimination in the public accommodations, such as motels, restaurants, gas stations, theaters, and sports arenas. Allowed withholding of federal funds from public or private programs that practice discrimination Banned discrimination on the basis of race, sex, religion, or national origin by employers or unions. March on Washington & Civil Rights Act of 1964 MLK’s “I Have a Dream” speech

  16. Birmingham (‘63) and Selma (‘65) Marches

  17. Freedom Summer (1964) With the new legislation there was a massive campaign among both blacks and whites to register southern blacks to vote Led to violence by KKK Voting Rights Act of 1965 Federal gov could register voters in places where local officials were blocking registration Banned literacy tests and other barriers 24th Amendment Outlawed poll taxes Voting Rights

  18. Nation of Islam Often called Black Muslims, they viewed white society as oppressive and preached black separation and self-help. This along with the separate identity and racial unity among African Americans was known as black nationalism Leader was Elijah Muhammad Main public speaker was Malcolm X X eventually broke away from the Nation of Islam and embraced the idea of working with other races He was assassinated by the Nation of Islam in 1965 Nation of Islam Elijah Muhammad Malcolm X

  19. Black Power Movement First emerged within the SNCC under Stokely Carmichael Black Panthers Formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale Wanted blacks to lead their own communities Demanded federal government rebuild ghettos Wanted to combat police brutality “Black is beautiful” Watts Riots of 1965 6-day riot outside of LA began when a white officer beat a black man pulled over for drunk driving Black Power Movement Bobby Seale & Huey Newton Stokely Carmichael

  20. April 4, 1968 in Memphis, TN MLK began to expand his platform to include economic injustice believing the poverty bred violence. Shot while standing on the balcony of his hotel. Rioting and looting broke out in more than 120 US cities. He was 39 years old. Assassin was James Earl Ray Martin Luther King, Jr. Assassinated

  21. June 4, 1968 in Los Angeles, CA Running as a candidate in the 1968 Democratic primary Won the state of California that night While exiting through the kitchen he was shot by assassin Sirhan Sirhan Robert F. Kennedy Assassinated

  22. Sen. John F. Kennedy (D) vs. VP Richard Nixon (R) First election in which television was a major influence Kennedy narrowly wins. Election of 1960 • Accusations of voter fraud in Texas and Illinois • Kennedy becomes youngest president ever elected at 43. (TR was 42). • 1st and only non-protestant president

  23. “New Frontier” Raised minimum wage Signed the Housing Act which provided $4.9 billion for urban renewal Equal Pay Act Peace Corps Poured money into NASA setting the goal of placing a man on the moon before the decade was over Cut taxes Assassination November 22, 1963 JFK is assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas, TX. Two days later Oswald was killed by Jack Ruby Conspiracy theories run rampant so new president Lyndon B. Johnson forms the Warren Commission to investigate such accusations. Their findings state that Oswald acted alone. JFK’s Domestic Programs

  24. LBJ Sworn In & Oswald is Killed

  25. Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson (D) destroys Sen. Barry Goldwater (R) getting 61% of the popular vote “Little Daisy” advertisement Election of 1964

  26. “Great Society” Cut taxes Launched War on Poverty Head Start Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA) Medicare – provide low-cost medical insurance for those over 65 Medicaid – provide low-cost medical insurance for the poor Immigration Act of 1965 20,000 per year from any country outside the Western Hemisphere 170,000 immigrants from all the Eastern Hemisphere 120,000 immigrants from all the Western Hemisphere LBJ’s Domestic Program “Johnson Treatment”

  27. Directions: Complete the graphic organizer below listing the landmark decisions of the Warren Court. (pgs. 979-981)

  28. Bay of Pigs invasion US attempt to oust Fidel Castro from power in Cuba in April 1961 Failed miserably when JFK refused to provide our Cuban rebels with air cover Damaged US prestige Berlin Crisis USSR erects the Berlin Wall separating the communist and non-communist sections of the city Designed to stop the flow of East Germans to West Germany Foreign Policy in the Early 1960s

  29. Cuban Missile Crisis • October 16-28, 1962 • USSR began importing nuclear weapons to Cuba to offset US missiles in Turkey and Greece aimed at the USSR • Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba and mobilized US troops • Kennedy and Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev reached an agreement • US promises not to invade Cuba • USSR promises to remove missile from Cuba • A third deal, made secretly, saw the US agree to remove its missiles from Turkey and Greece • Closest the world has ever come to nuclear war • 1963 – US, USSR & Britain sign the Limited Test Ban Treaty banning nuclear testing above ground

  30. Women’s Movement • Feminism • Theory of political, economic, and social equality of men and women • 1960 – 38% of women had jobs • 1970 – 43% of all Bachelor of Arts degrees were earned by women • Women were underemployed and wage discrimination was rampant (57 cents to dollar versus men in 1970) • National Organization for Women (NOW) • Sought fair pay and equal job opportunities • Gloria Steinem • Founded Ms. Magazine • Roe v. Wade (1973) • No state can prohibit a woman from having an abortion during the first trimester of a pregnancy • States can place restrictions after the first trimester • Equal Rights Amendment • Passed by Congress in 1972, but failed to get ¾ of state legislature support

  31. Directions: Complete the graphic organizer below describing each group’s struggle for equality. (pgs. 1003-1008)

  32. Counterculture • Hippies • Valued youth, spontaneity, and individuality • Promoted peace, love, and freedom • Experimented with new styles of dress and music, freer attitudes toward sexual relationships, and the recreational use of drugs. • Huge in number since these were the children of the “baby boom” after WWII • Woodstock and Altamont • Sexual Revolution • Rejected traditional restrictions on sexual behavior • 1960 – FDA approves the birth control pill • By 1973, there are 10 million users in the US • Allows women to choose when and if to have children. No longer prisoners of biology. • More women choose to pursue careers, recreation and education. • Divorce rate doubles • Experimented with new living patterns such as communes • Drug Scene • LSD and marijuana most common • Dr. Timothy Leary preached the benefits of LSD in “freeing your mind” and encouraged youth to “tune in, turn on, drop out.” Timothy Leary