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Shakespeare and His Time. Introduction to the Life of the Bard, William Shakespeare. Outline. The Tudor Monarchy Shakespeare’s Life and Writing Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre. The Tudor Monarchy. Characteristics of the Tudor Reign. Dominated by Religious Turmoil Protestant vs. Catholic

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shakespeare and his time

Shakespeare and His Time

Introduction to the Life of the Bard, William Shakespeare

outline
Outline
  • The Tudor Monarchy
  • Shakespeare’s Life and Writing
  • Elizabethan and Jacobean Theatre
characteristics of the tudor reign
Characteristics of the Tudor Reign
  • Dominated by Religious Turmoil
    • Protestant vs. Catholic
  • Many political and sexual scandals
  • Rise of the Middle Class
  • Wars with France, Spain, and Scotland
  • Vast growth in the Arts and Sciences
a thing about royalty
A Thing About Royalty…
  • Monarchs believe they are placed on the throne by God (The Divine Right of Kings)
  • Throne is passed to the first born male
  • England has no written Constitution to this day
king henry viii
King Henry VIII
  • Crowned at age 17 after brother’s death
    • Marries Katherine of Aragon
  • Given title of “Defender of the Faith” by Pope
    • Defended Catholicism against Martin Luther
  • Reign is littered with scandal and corruption
    • The Protestant Reformation and…
1 catherine of aragon
1. Catherine of Aragon
  • Spanish
    • Daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella
  • Very Strong Catholic
  • Bears four children—only one survives
    • Mary Tudor
    • There’s no male heir
1 catherine of aragon1
1. Catherine of Aragon
  • Henry wants to annul marriage when she can no longer bear children
    • Pope says no (divorce is an abomination)
  • Establishes the Church of England, making the monarch is in charge of Religion
    • Catholicism with a different name
    • Pope charges excommunication
  • Henry grants himself a divorce
  • Catherine goes into seclusion for the rest of her life
2 anne boleyn
2. Anne Boleyn
  • English and a Protestant
  • Married and crowned Queen one week after divorce
  • Bears a child (Elizabeth)
  • Tried for treason, adultery, and incest
    • Beheaded by French Swordsman
    • Buried at Tower of London at site of execution
3 jane seymour
3. Jane Seymour
  • English and Catholic
  • Married Henry the day after Anne’s execution
  • Bears a child—a male heir is established
    • Edward Tudor
  • Dies of childbed fever (bacterial infection)
4 anne of cleves
4. Anne of Cleves
  • German and Protestant
  • Henry agrees to marry her without ever seeing her
    • “Not to my taste…”
    • Agrees to marry to avoid conflict with Germany
  • Annuls the marriage after 6 months
    • Referred to as “The King’s Beloved Sister”
5 catherine howard
5. Catherine Howard
  • English and Catholic
  • Princess Mary hated her
    • Catherine 5 years younger than Mary
  • Bigamist—married to King Henry and another man at the same time
    • Henry didn’t know this
  • Caught cheating with one of the King’s servants
    • Beheaded for adultery
6 catherine parr
6. Catherine Parr
  • English and Protestant
  • Reconciled Princesses Mary and Elizabeth to the line of heirs
    • Mary disliked her for being Protestant
  • Henry VIII dies during this marriage
    • Buried next to Jane Seymour at Windsor Castle
king edward vi
King Edward VI
  • Crowned at age 9
    • Edward Seymour (uncle) named Regent
  • Makes England Protestant
  • Invasion of Scotland
    • Edward betrothed to Mary, Queen of Scots
    • Scots recant betrothal (Mary of Guise)
    • Military victory for England
  • Edward VI dies at age 15
    • Dies of Tuberculosis
queen mary i
Queen Mary I
  • First female Monarch in England
  • Restores Catholicism to England
  • 300 Protestants burnt at the stake in three years
    • Earns her the nickname “Bloody Mary”
  • Marries the King Phillip of Spain
    • Needs to establish a Catholic heir
    • Mistakes uterine cancer for a pregnancy
    • Dies without an heir
queen elizabeth i
Queen Elizabeth I
  • Extremely intelligent
    • Spoke 6 languages fluently
    • Poet and artist
  • Known as The Virgin Queen
    • Pressured by council to marry; refuses
      • Marrying foreigner forces other nation’s politics on England
      • Marrying Englishman—what religion?
      • Married to England
queen elizabeth i1
Queen Elizabeth I
  • Instability at times
    • Severe Economic Depression left by Mary I
    • Papal order releasing English people from Elizabeth’s rule
    • Assassination attempts (Babington Plot)
    • Threats of invasion/claims to throne (Mary, Queen of Scots and Spanish Armada)
queen elizabeth i2
Queen Elizabeth I
  • Reign was known as “The Golden Age” for advancement in the Arts and Sciences
    • Voyages of Discovery (the first American colony)
    • Sculpture and Painting
    • Architecture
    • Music
    • Writers, Poets, and Playwrights
      • William Shakespeare
      • Christopher Marlow
  • Dies in 1603 after a 45-year reign; last Tudor Monarch
early life
Early Life
  • Born April 23, 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon
  • Married Anne Hathaway
    • 3 months pregnant at time
    • Three children
      • Susanna, and twins Hamnetand Judith
  • Moves to London to begin his acting/writing career
london
London
  • 1592—The plague runs ramped in London; theatres are ordered closed
  • 1593—Christopher Marlow found dead
  • 1594—First play, The Comedy of Errors, published and performed at Gray’s Inn
  • 1597—Shakespeare’s son, Hamnet, dies; writes the play Hamlet
  • 1603—Queen Elizabeth I dies; James I inherits the throne; James I names Shakespeare’s theatre company “The King’s Men”
london1
London
  • 1610—Shakespeare retires to Stratford-upon-Avon
  • 1613—The Globe Theatre burns to the ground during a performance of Henry VIII when a prop cannon misfires and ignites the thatched roof
  • Shakespeare dies April 23, 1616 at age 52
epitaph
Epitaph

Good friend for Jesus sake forbear

To dig the dust encloséd here!

Blest be the man that spares these stones,

And curst be he that moves my bones.

writing topics
Writing Topics
  • Wrote about what he knew, experienced, or felt
    • Politics
    • Social Problems
    • Personal Struggle
  • 3 types of plays:
    • Comedies
    • Histories
    • Tragedies
iambic pentameter
Iambic Pentameter
  • Majority of works written in Iambic Pentameter
    • Iambic Pentameter—a 10 syllable line consisting of 5 sets of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
      • Unstressed syllables denoted (ں)
      • Stressed syllables denoted ( / )
    • Lines vary occasionally
language
Language
  • Emphasis on choosing his words carefully
    • Affected tone and audience interpretation
      • You’re stupid.
      • You’re silly.
      • You’re wrong.
      • You’re mistaken.
  • Employed symbolism, imagery, and metaphor
    • Pun—play on words
    • Sexual Innuendo—the suggestion of something sexual in nature
affects on modern language
Affects on Modern Language
  • Changed nouns to verbs
    • Hint eyeball
  • Changed verbs to adjectives
    • Accuse = accused
  • Combined two words into one
    • Courtship, birthplace, outbreak, worthless
  • Added prefixes and suffixes
    • Impartial fashionable
  • Developed his own words and phrases
    • Assassination
    • Method in the madness
    • One fell swoop
theater s beginnings
Theater’s Beginnings
  • No theatres—traveling companies
    • 5—8 actors per troupe
    • Prepubescent boys played female roles
  • Performed in taverns, town squares, halls, farms, etc.
theatre is immoral
Theatre is Immoral
  • Laws passed to control vagrancy
    • Actors became criminals
    • Creation of Theatres
  • Once theatres open, Puritans want to close them down
    • Prostitution
    • Pit-pocketing
    • Promote Homosexuality
theatre is immoral1
Theatre is Immoral
  • Close for a brief time because of the plague
  • Elizabeth loved theatre, and opens them back open
  • Average Londoner saw 2-3 plays/week; theatre open 6 days/week
theatre design
Theatre Design
  • Based on bear baiting yards
  • Physical Makeup
    • Entirely wood
    • Polygonal in shape
    • 3 levels of seating
      • rich to get a seat
    • Pit
      • standing room only for 1 penny
      • Open skies above—rained on a lot
theatre design1
Theatre Design
  • Performance Space
    • Thrust stage
    • Trap door on stage—used for ascension/dissention to hell
    • Columns on both sides of stage
    • Ceiling under roof—the heavens
    • Balcony—for musicians and acting
    • Tiring House—back stage area