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Collecting user requirements Introduction to data flow modeling. BCIS 4610. Agenda. Project proposal discussion Project scheduling with network diagrams Collecting user requirements Introduction to requirements analysis. Project Proposals. Follow the Collect background information

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collecting user requirements introduction to data flow modeling

Collecting user requirementsIntroduction to data flow modeling

BCIS 4610

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

agenda
Agenda
  • Project proposal discussion
  • Project scheduling with network diagrams
  • Collecting user requirements
  • Introduction to requirements analysis
project proposals
Project Proposals
  • Follow the
  • Collect background information
  • Create a convincing proposal
    • Be creative
    • Make it look professional
    • For grading purposes, the quality of the document matters most!

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

resource rate table
Resource Rate Table

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

creating a budget in excel
Creating a budget in Excel

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

creating a budget in ms project
Creating a budget in MS Project
  • Enter tasks
  • Enter resources (names, rates and availability)
  • Assign resources to tasks
  • View Resource Usage and Resource Graph to make adjustments

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

collecting user requirements
Collecting user requirements

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

  • What are the requirements
  • What are the methods for collecting requirements
    • Interviews
    • Questionnaires
    • Document analysis
    • Observations
    • Other
what are system requirements
What are system requirements
  • Requirement is a statement of what the system must do and what characteristics it must have
    • “What” of the system
    • During analysis – businessperson’s perspective
    • During design – translated into developer’s perspective
    • Evolve over the course of the project
    • Go from the overall goal of the systems to detailed specifications

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

what are system requirements1
What are system requirements
  • Functional requirements – relate directly to a process the system has to perform or information it needs to contain
  • Non-functional requirements – refer to the behavioral properties of the systems, such as usability and performance
    • User interface
    • Hardware and software
    • Integration capabilities
    • Security

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

understanding user requirements
Understanding user requirements
  • Sponsors of the system - understanding the goal of the system
  • Process owners and functional experts – understanding the functional requirements
  • End-users – understanding user interface needs
  • IT people – understanding how the system fits into the overall IT architecture

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

other sources of information
Other sources of information
  • Enterprise data model – if it exists
  • Process maps – if they exist
  • Old system and system documentation
  • Reports currently used
  • Paper and electronic forms
  • Other organizational documentation

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

collecting user requirements includes
Collecting user requirements includes
  • Requirements planning and management
    • Understand team roles for the project
    • Define business analyst work division strategy
    • Define requirements risk approach
    • Determine planning considerations
    • Select requirements activities
    • Estimate requirements activities
    • Manage requirements scope
    • Measure and report on requirements activity
    • Manage requirements change
  • Requirements elicitation

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requirements planning and management
REQUIREMENTS PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT

The goals of requirements planning and management is to ensure that:

  • All necessary stakeholders are identified and properly represented during the requirements gathering process.
  • The most appropriate activities related to the requirements process are performed, given the project circumstances.
  • The requirements work effort is coordinated with other work done on the project.
  • The requirements team has a common understanding of the activities they will perform.
  • The BA or BA team can effectively monitor and react to requirements challenges and slippage.
  • The tools, resources, and requirements contributors are available when
  • requirements activities are scheduled.
  • Changes are captured correctly and consistently.

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requirements planning and management1
REQUIREMENTS Planning and management

The key outcomes include:

  • List of project team members assigned to the project and team member roles
  • List of stakeholders and their relationship to the project
  • List of requirements gathering tasks and division of work
  • Tool(s) used to gather and communicate requirements.

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

typical project roles
TYPICAL PROJECT ROLES
  • Executive Sponsor
  • Business Analyst
  • Project Manager
  • Developer
  • Quality Assurance Analyst
  • Trainer
  • Application Architect
  • Data Modeler
  • Database Analyst (DBA)
  • Infrastructure Analyst
  • Information Architect
  • Solution Owner
  • End User
  • Subject Matter Expert (SME)
  • Stakeholders

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

defning requirements risk approach
Defning requirements risk approach

Some examples of common requirements risks are:

  • Insufficient level of user involvement in identifying, detailed, and analyzing requirements
  • Ambiguous requirements. Not enough detail in the specification of the requirements.
  • Missing, incorrect, and conflicting requirements
  • Lack of requirements management and planning, such as requirements change control

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requirements elicitation
Requirements ELICITATION

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requirements elicitation techniques
REQUIREMENTs Elicitation Techniques
  • Brainstorming
  • Document Analysis (Review existing documentation)
  • Focus Group
  • Interface Analysis (External Interface Analysis)
  • Interview
  • Observation (Job Shadowing)
  • Prototyping (Storyboarding, Navigation Flow)
  • Requirements Workshop (Elicitation Workshop)
  • Facilitated Workshop
  • Joint Application Design (JAD)
  • Reverse Engineering
  • Survey Questionnaire

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

interview guidelines
Interview Guidelines
  • Plan
    • Checklist
    • Appointment
  • Gather facts, opinions and speculations
  • Be neutral
  • Listen
  • Observe body language and emotions
  • Seek a diverse view
  • TAKE NOTES!

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

interview questions
Interview questions
  • Types of questions
    • Open-Ended
    • Close-Ended
    • Probing
  • Level of details
    • Very general – “How can order processing be improved?”
    • Moderately specific – “ How can we reduce the number of times that customers return items
    • Very specific – “How can we reduce the number of errors in order processing?”

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

determining requirements questionnaires
Determining Requirements: Questionnaires
  • Design
    • Mostly closed-ended questions
    • Can be administered over the mail, Web, phone or in person
  • Vs. Interviews
    • Interviews cost more but yield more information
    • Questionnaires are more cost-effective
  • Choosing respondents
    • Should be representative of all users

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

determining requirements observations
Determining Requirements: Observations
  • Serves as a good method to supplement interviews
  • Time consuming
  • Often difficult to obtain unbiased data
    • People often work differently when being observed

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

analyzing procedures and other documents
Analyzing Procedures and Other Documents
  • Types of information to be discovered:
    • Rules for processing data
    • Special information processing circumstances
    • Values of organization
    • Organizational direction
    • Names of key individuals
    • Problems with existing system
    • Opportunity to meet new need

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

determining requirements jad and prototyping
Determining Requirements: JAD and Prototyping
  • Focus group
  • Brainstorming

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

agile usage centered design method
Agile usage-centered design method
  • Gather a variety of users and developers
  • Let them vent about problems (record)
  • Determine key user roles and goals
  • Determine tasks for each role
  • Group tasks
  • Write task descriptions
  • Sketch user interface for each task group
  • Go through each user role on paper

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

deliverables and outcomes
Deliverables and Outcomes
  • Transcripts of Interviews
  • Notes from observations and analysis of documents
  • Analyzed responses from surveys
  • Prototypes
  • Results of JAD and Agile Usage-centered design sessions
  • Use-case descriptions – more recently

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

next step analyzing user requirements
Next step – analyzing user requirements
  • Functional
    • Recording system requirements through use-cases and use-case diagrams
    • Process and functional modeling with DFDs and Activity diagrams
    • Data and structural modeling with ERDs and Class diagrams
  • Non-functional
    • Interface design and prototypes
    • Physical design constraints

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

in class exercise
In-Class Exercise
  • Get together with your group members
  • Create a plan for system requirements collection:
  • - What methods would you use?
  • - Create a timeline
  • Come up with 2-3 closed-end and 2-3 open-ended questions that you would like to potential users of your proposed system. Tell us about the system and present the questions

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

analyzing process requirements
Analyzing process requirements

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requirements analysis
REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS
  • Requirements analysis and documentation describes how stakeholder needs are analyzed, structured and specified for use in the design and implementation of a solution.
  • The objective is to define and describe the characteristics of an acceptable solution to a business problem, so that the project team has a clear understanding of how to design and implement it.
  • The primary focus of this activity is to develop the analysis models and determine the gaps in the information provided by the stakeholders.

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requierements analysis includes
REQUIEREMENTS ANALYSIS INCLUDES
  • Structure requirements packages
  • Create business domain model
  • Analyze user requirements
  • Analyze functional requirements
  • Analyze quality of service requirements
  • Determine assumptions and constraints
  • Determine requirements attributes
  • Document requirements
  • Validate requirements
  • Verify requirements

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requirements modeling techniques
Requirements Modeling Techniques
  • DATA AND BEHAVIOR MODELING TECHNIQUES
    • Business rules
    • Class model
    • Crud matrix
    • Data dictionary
    • Data transformation and mapping
    • Entity relationship diagrams
    • Metadata definition

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requirements modeling techniques1
Requirements Modeling Techniques
  • PROCESS/FLOW MODELING TECHNIQUE
    • Activity diagram
    • Data flow diagram
    • Event identification
    • Flowchart
    • Sequence diagram
    • State machine diagram
    • Workflow models (Process maps)

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

requirements modeling techniques2
Requirements Modeling Techniques
  • USAGE MODELS
    • Storyboards/screen flows
    • Use case description
    • Use case diagram
    • User interface designs
    • User profiles
    • User stories

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008

next time
Next time
  • Process Modeling
  • Modeling user requirement with DFDs
  • Using Oracle CASE tools

BCIS 4610, Fall 2008