Misresponse to Reversed and Negated Items in Surveys: A Review. Bert Weijters Hans Baumgartner. Motivation. Should reversed items be included in multi-item summative scales?
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we analyzed items from volumes 1 through 36 of JCR (1974 till the end of 2009) and volumes 1 through 46 of JMR (1964 to 2009);
we included all Likert-type scales for which the items making up the scale were reproduced in the article and factor loadings or item-total correlations were reported;
total of 66 articles in which information about 1330 items measuring 314 factors was provided;
of the 1330 distinct items in the data set, 608 came from JCR and 722 from JMR;
in our data set of 1330 items, between 83 and 86 percent of items were nonreversed (depending on the definition of reversal);
the proportion of factors (or subfactors in the case of multi-factor constructs) that do not contain reversed items was 70 percent;
only 8 percent of factors (out of 314 factors) were composed of an equal number of reversed and nonreversed items (i.e., the scale was balanced);
MR → within-participant inconsistency in response to multiple items intended to measure the same construct;
RG . .68
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