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Value-added education and substance use
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  1. Value-added education and substance use Wolf Markham Paul Aveyard Sherri Bisset

  2. Talk outline • Outline of the theory • Application of the theory

  3. Basis of theory The application of • Nussbaum’s Aristotelian interpretation of good human functioning which includes a focus of fundamental human needs and essential human capacities • Bernstein’s influential theory of cultural transmission

  4. Bernstein's theory of cultural transmission • Instructional order • Regulatory order

  5. Instructional order • Focuses on ability of pupils to contribute to future production through work • Aims are to relay knowledge and skills and influence pupils’ orientations to meaning

  6. Regulatory order • Focuses on the conduct, character and manner of pupils • Aims to relay values and thus facilitate the attachment of pupils’ to the school and the internalisation of the values and beliefs of the school

  7. What influences pupils’ response to the two orders • Socio-cultural origins of the pupil • Pupils’ friendship groups • Pupils expectations including expected future occupation • Pupils’ hopes and interests • Pupils’ view of the purpose of the school • School culture • Schools’ values • Schools’ hope and expectations

  8. Classification and framing • Classification refers to boundaries • Framing refers to communication

  9. Strongly classified and framed school • Strong boundaries within school and between the school and the outside world • High degree of specialism of teachers and subjects • Celebrated hierarchies within pupil population based on e.g. age, academic attainment and sporting prowess • Little pupil input into running of school

  10. Pedagogy • Teachers are viewed as the primary source of knowledge • The pedagogic practice focuses on the learner • The overriding concern of schooling is the instructional order and the main focus of the regulatory order is to facilitate the learner

  11. Weakly classified and weakly framed school • School has strong links with the communities it serves and with outside agencies • Pupils involved in school-level decision making • Integrated curriculum

  12. Pedagogy • Pupils are viewed as sources of knowledge • Pupils encouraged to think that there are different ways of knowing • Greater input into the selection pacing and sequencing of classroom activities

  13. Two studies provide the data • TTM-based smoking prevention/ cessation trial (1997-1999) • 8352 adolescents in 52 schools • aged 13-14 at baseline (Year 9) • 89.1% followed up one year later • 84.6% followed up two years later • 3 computerised interventions in Year 9 • Cross-sectional study- West Midlands Young People’s Lifestyle Survey (YPLS) 1995/6 • 25,781 pupils in 166 secondary schools • Years 7 (11-12), 9 (13-14), and 11 (15-16)

  14. Measuring school culture? • Predicting the 5 A-Cs rate • Predicting the truancy rate • Gender, deprivation (Townsend, FSM, housing tenure), ethnicity

  15. OR (95%CI) OR (95%CI 2, df, p Base modelb Achievement terms 5A-C Truancy Base model + observed achievement scores 0.96 (0.91-1.02)d 0.97 (0.89-1.06)e 2.4, 2, 0.30 Base model + observed achievement scores + pupil-level risk factorsc 1.01 (0.95-1.07)d 1.01 (0.92-1.10)e 0.2, 2, 0.91 Value-added (support and control) terms High Low Base model + school culture 0.80 (0.70-0.91) 1.16 (1.07-1.27) 11.6, 1, <0.001 Base model + school culture + pupil-level risk factorsc 0.83 (0.73-0.95) 1.13 (1.04-1.24) 7.9, 1, 0.005

  16. Does school culture influence pupils’ smoking?

  17. Replication of the value-added terms in the trial data • OR (95% confidence interval) for a 1SD increase in value-added score • 0.85 (0.73 to 0.99)at one year follow up • 0.80 (0.71 to 0.91) at two year follow up • These effects lead to 27% fewer smokers in high value-added vs. low value-added at 2 years

  18. Value-added effect smaller in those already smoking? • Very little evidence of this • At one year, • OR for value added term for baseline regular smokers=0.85 and 0.85 for baseline never smokers • At two years, • OR for value added term for baseline regular smokers=0.87 and 0.79 for baseline never smokers