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Presentation on SPECTRUM SHARING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK. Made By: NIVEDITA CHANDRAKANT AHIRE . AGENDA. HISTORY INTRODUCTION DEFINITION COGNITVE RADIO COGNITIVE RADIO ARCHITECTURE FUNCTIONALITIES OF CRN SPECTRUM SHARING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS

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Presentation on SPECTRUM SHARING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK


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    1. Presentation on SPECTRUM SHARING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK Made By: NIVEDITA CHANDRAKANT AHIRE

    2. AGENDA • HISTORY • INTRODUCTION • DEFINITION • COGNITVE RADIO • COGNITIVE RADIO ARCHITECTURE • FUNCTIONALITIES OF CRN • SPECTRUM SHARING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORKS • CLASSIFICATIONS • INTER NETWORK SPECTRUM SHARING • INTRA NETWORK SPECTRUM SHARING • REFERENCES • CONCLUSION

    3. HISTORY • Proposed by Dr. Joseph Mitola in 1999

    4. INTRODUCTION 1

    5. WHY COGNITIVE RADIO ? • Current wireless networks are regulated by fixed spectrum assignment policy • According to Federal communication commission , temporal and geographical variations in the utilization of the assigned spectral ranges from 15% to 85% .

    6. WHY COGNITVE RADIO ? Fixed Spectrum Assignment policyWhite Spaces Inefficient spectrum utilization Cognitive radio network : It is a new paradigm that provides the capability to share or use the spectrum in an opportunistic manner.

    7. DEFINITION 2

    8. COGNITIVE RADIO • Cognitive radio is a wireless communication system which is aware of the environment and its changes and can adapt its transmission parameters accordingly. • Cognitive Capability: The ability to sense the unused spectrum at a specific time and location (spectrum hole)

    9. Continued…. Reconfigurability: The ability to receive and transmit at different frequency band enables the cognitive radio to reconfigure its parameters and select the best band.

    10. SPECTRUM HOLE

    11. COGNITIVE RADIO ARCHITECTURE 3

    12. COMPONENTS OF CRN • PRIMARY NETWORK • Primary Users: • Primary users have the license to operate in certain spectrum bands • Primary base station: • Controls the access of primary users to spectrum • SECONDARY NETWORK • Secondary Users: • Secondary users have no licensed bands assigned to them. • Secondary base-station: • A fixed infrastructure component with cognitive radio capabilities and provides single hop connection to secondary users. • Spectrum broker : • Scheduling server shares the spectrum resources between different cognitive radio networks.

    13. COGNITIVE RADIO ARCHITECTURE

    14. NETWORK ACCESS TYPES CR Network Access: CRs can access their own base station on both licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands CR Ad Hoc Access: CRs can communicate with other CRs through an ad hoc connection on both licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands. Primary Network Access : CRs can access primary base station through the licensed bands.

    15. FUNCTIONALITY OF CRN Spectrum Sensing: This function detects spectrum holes and senses the presence of the LU when the CU operates on a licensed band. Spectrum Management: Based on the availability of the spectrum and other policies, CR user allocates the best available spectrum band. Spectrum Mobility: CR user shall vacate the spectrum in the presence of any primary user and move to next best available spectrum band Spectrum Sharing: CR network has to provide a fair and optimal spectrum allocation method among multiple CR users.

    16. COGNITIVE RADIO FUNCTIONALITIES

    17. FUNCTIONS OF NETWORK LAYER • Physical layer: • spectrum sensing • data reconfigurable transmission based on Software Defined Radio (SDR). • Link Layer : • spectrum analysis • spectrum selection(spectrum adjustment) • spectrum coordination.

    18. FUNCTIONS OF NETWORK LAYER • MAC layer: • Obtaining information on channel occupancy. • Performing negotiation among primary users and secondary users for spectrum allocation and also among secondary users for channel sensing and access. • Synchronizing transmission parameters (e.g. channel, time slot) between transmitter and receiver. • Facilitating spectrum trading functions (e.g. spectrum bidding and pricing).

    19. APPLICATIONS OF CRN Leased network Cognitive mesh network Emergency network Military network

    20. SPECTRUM SHARING IN COGNITIVE RADIO NETWORK 6

    21. SPECTRUM SHARING • Spectrum sharing is the simultaneous usage of a specific radio frequency band in a specific geographical area by a number of independent entities, leveraged through mechanisms other than traditional multiple- and random-access techniques. The spectrum sharing process consists of five major steps: • Spectrum sensing:detects spectrum holes and senses the presence of the LU when the CU operates on a licensed band. • Spectrum allocation: Allocation of a channel not only depends on spectrum availability but also depends on internal and external policies.

    22. SPECTRUM SHARING • Spectrum access: Since there are multiple secondary users trying to access the spectrum, their access should be coordinated to avoid colliding in overlapping portions of the spectrum. • Transmitter-receiver handshake: After deciding a portion of the spectrum, the receiver of this communication should also be indicated. • Spectrum mobility: If the specific portion of the spectrum is needed by a licensed user, the communication needs be continued in another vacant portion.

    23. CLASSIFICATION • Classification based on Architecture. 1.Centralized Spectrum Sharing. 2.Distributed Spectrum Sharing. • Classification based on access behaviour. 1.Cooperative Spectrum Sharing 2.Non Cooperative Spectrum Sharing • Classification based on access technique.

    24. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ACCESS BEHAVIOUR Overlay Spectrum Sharing

    25. CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ACCESS BEHAVIOUR Underlay Spectrum Sharing

    26. INTER AND INTRA NETWORK

    27. INTER NETWORK SPECTRUM SHARING Centralized Inter-Network Spectrum Sharing

    28. INTER NETWORK SPECTRUM SHARING Distributed Inter-Network Spectrum Sharing

    29. INTRA NETWORK SPECTRUM SHARING 1.Centralized Intra-Network Spectrum Sharing

    30. INTRA NETWORK SPECTRUM SHARING 2.Distributed Intra-Network Spectrum Sharing

    31. CHALLENGES • Common Control Channel(CCC) • Uses spectrum sharing functionalities. • In feasible in xG networks. • Dynamic Radio Range • Radio range changes with operating frequency due to attenuation variation. • Neighbours of a node may change as the operating frequency changes. • Select control channels in the lower portions of the spectrum where the transmission range. • Select data channels in the higher portions of the spectrum.

    32. CONCLUSION • Solve the current existing problems in wireless communications • Dynamic spectrum sharing is being used. • Efficient Spectrum sharing. • Spectrum sharing can be performed over licensed or unlicensed bands • Unlicensed bands allow systems/devices to utilize those bands without requiring a spectrum license

    33. REFERENCES IEEE Papers: [1]H. Feizresan and Dr. M. J. Omidi “Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks” (Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Isfahan University of Technology) [2]VarakaUdayKanth, Kolli Ravi Chandra , Rayala Ravi Kumar ,Associate professor, Dept. of ECE KL University “Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks” in (IJETT) - Volume4Issue4- April 2013 [3]Beibei Wang and K. J. Ray Liu “Advances in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Survey” IEEE Journal Of Selected Topics In Signal Processing, Vol. 5, No. 1, Feburary 2011 WORD WIDE WEBS: • www.cs.umd.edu/~jkatz/THESES/clancy.pdf by TC Clancy III -2006 • newport.eecs.uci.edu/ • ieeexplore.ieee.org • www.researchgate.net/…Spectrum_sharing_in_cognitive_radio_networks by HB Salameh

    34. THANK YOU