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Non-Tariff Barriers Facing Lao Exporters. NTM Workshop, World Bank 4-5 May 2006, Krabi, Thailand. Background. Necessary to bear in mind the characteristics of Laos as a landlocked country.

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non tariff barriers facing lao exporters

Non-Tariff Barriers Facing Lao Exporters

NTM Workshop, World Bank

4-5 May 2006, Krabi, Thailand

background
Background
  • Necessary to bear in mind the characteristics of Laos as a landlocked country.
  • Dealt not only of NTBs imposed by trading country partners but also of mechanisms within Laos or the lack of these that limit exporters.
lao export profile
Lao Export Profile
  • In the 1990’s, export growth was around 15% per year;
  • In first 6 months of 2004, this increased by 22%
  • Mainly driven by garments, electricity, mining and coffee.
composition of lao export goods
Composition of Lao Export Goods
  • Highly concentrated to 3 product categories:
  • Wood and wood products
  • Garments
  • Coffee
slide5
Cont:
  • These products account for 96% of total exports of merchandise goods (electricity not included).
  • Almost 80% of exports are directed to EU and Thailand.
slide6
Cont:
  • Insufficiently exploited export potential include:
  • Secondary wood processing products;
  • Knitted garments;
  • footwear;
  • Livestock-based products; and
  • Light manufacturing
major export product categories
Major Export Product Categories
  • GARMENT
  • Accounts for 25% (equal to electricity) of the total exports;
  • EU is the biggest recipient country/region, 88% in 2000 and increased to 91% in 2003.
slide8
Cont:
  • WOOD AND WOOD PRODUCTS
  • From 2001-2003, this accounted for 17% of the total exports
  • Main destinations were Thailand (76%),

Japan (14%), China (12%) and Taiwan (3%)

slide9
Cont:
  • COFFEE
  • From 2001-2003, coffee products accounted for 3% of the total exports.
  • Since 1995, EU has emerged as the dominating recipient country accounting for 50-60% of the Lao coffee exports.
other export products
Other export products
  • TEXTILE HANDICRAFTS
  • Estimated total export value as a whole was approximately 12 M dollars in 2002-2003.
  • Though having the benefits of GSP, destinations are mainly to EU countries, Singapore, Japan, and USA. Informal border trade to Thailand occurs.
slide11
Cont:
  • OTHER AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS AND NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS (NTFPs)
  • These include commercialized products such as cardamom, broom grass, sticklac, mulberry and resin
  • Industrial crops such as: soybeans, job tears, sesame seeds, ground nuts.
slide12
Cont:
  • Trading partners are neighboring countries like Thailand, Vietnam and China using border trades with a few cases of exports to EU like France.
  • Data indicates quite fluctuated export figures: 6.6 USD in 2000-01, 8.2 USD in 2001-02 and 5.7 USD in 2002-03.
main products affected by ntms
Main Products affected by NTMs
  • Internal restrictions:
  • Wood (timber, natural wood)
  • External barriers:
  • Garments (textile, cloth materials)
  • Handicrafts (silk woven products)
types of ntms
Types of NTMs
  • Internal measures that affect export:
  • Unclear and changing regulations and procedures.
  • Restrictive practices: Administrative procedures where too many steps and paper works are required to get ones’ products approved
slide15
Cont:
  • Irregular amounts that have to be paid.
  • Extra expenses paid (“to make the process faster”) which cannot be declared as there are no receipts issued for these.
  • Customs valuation in which charges are not standard or the same.
slide16
Cont:
  • External Measures
  • Most prohibitive were transport costs due to monopoly in Thailand
  • Third country transit costs and paper works on Thai side
  • Customs services and procedures both in Thailand and in Lao side
slide17
Cont:
  • Pre-shipment inspection: Double checking that cause delay and extra charges both on the Lao and Thai side
  • Technical barriers; technical regulations and standards.
slide18
Cont:
  • Strict requirements set and additional costs to testing in other countries.
  • Lack of laboratories in Laos for testing that can be accepted internationally.
countries most constraining
Countries Most Constraining
  • Thailand
  • EU
  • Japan
  • Laos
slide20
SABAIDEE,

KOP CHAI LAI LAI

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