mata kuliah konsentrasi wto gatt dan gats topik tariff barriers dan non tariff barriers
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Mata Kuliah Konsentrasi WTO (GATT dan GATS) Topik : Tariff barriers dan Non-tariff barriers. Dina W. Kariodimedjo FAKULTAS HUKUM UGM. Perdagangan internasional memerlukan akses ke pasar domestik negara lain. Akses tersebut harus terukur dan bertambah / meningkat Goods and services

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mata kuliah konsentrasi wto gatt dan gats topik tariff barriers dan non tariff barriers

Mata KuliahKonsentrasiWTO (GATT dan GATS)Topik: Tariff barriersdanNon-tariff barriers

Dina W. Kariodimedjo

FAKULTAS HUKUM UGM

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slide2
Perdaganganinternasionalmemerlukanakseskepasardomestiknegara lain.
  • Aksestersebutharusterukurdanbertambah/ meningkat
    • Goods and services
    • Countries, traders, and service suppliers
  • Akseskepasardomestiknegara lain acapkalidibatasidenganbermacamcara
    • Tariff barriers
    • Non-tariff barriers (NTB)

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slide3
TB
  • Terutama mencakup customs duties = tariffs.
  • TB relevan terutama untuk perdagangan barang.

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NTB
  • Quantitative restrictions
    • Quotas
  • Other NTB
    • Lack of transparency of trade regulation
    • Unfair and arbitrary application of trade regulation
    • Customs formalities
    • Technical barriers to trade and government procurement practices

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pembukaan wto agreement
Pembukaan WTO Agreement
  • WTO Members pursue the objectives of higher standards of living, full employment, growth and sustainable economic development by entering into reciprocal and mutual advantageous arrangements directed to the substantial reduction of tariffs and other barriers to trade.

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Pengurangan tariff danhambatan-hambatanperdagangan yang bersifat non-tariff yang dilakukanbersamaandenganpenghapusandiskriminasimerupakancarakunciuntukmencapaitujuan WTO secaramenyeluruh.
    • Estimasinilaikeuntungandariadanyapengurangan tariff: antara US$80 billion and US$500 billion.
    • Kelebihan-kelebihan/ nilaipositifdaripengurangan tariff lebihbanyakdaripadakeuntungan yang dicapaidariliberalisasiperdagangan.

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slide7
Quantitative restrictions on goods are prohibited, while other barriers, such as customs duties are allowed in principle and are only limited to the extent of a Member’s specific agreement.

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tariff barriers to trade in goods
Tariff barriers to trade in goods
  • Custom duties or tariff
  • Negotiations on tariff reductions
  • Tariff concessions and schedule of concessions
  • Protection of tariff concessions
  • Modification or withdrawal of tariff concessions
  • Imposition of custom duties
  • Other duties and charges

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tariff barriers to trade in goods1
Tariff barriers to trade in goods
  • Custom duties or tariff
    • Is a financial charge, in the form of a tax, imposed on products at the time of, and/or because of their importation.
    • Tariff is specific, ad valorem or mixed.
      • A specific customs duty on a product is an amount based on the weight, volume or quantity of that product.
        • Duty 100 Euro per hectoliter minyak sayur.
        • Duty 3.000 Euro atas setiap mobil.

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tariff barriers to trade in goods2
Tariff barriers to trade in goods
    • Ad valorem pada barang adalah duty yang dihitung berdasarkan nilai barang  persentase dari nilai barang yang diimpor
      • 15% ad valorem duty pada komputer  duty atas komputer senilai 1.000 Euro = 150 Euro.
    • Mixed or compound
      • Duty on wool 10% ad valorem + 50 Euro per ton  duty on 3 tons of wool dengan harga 1.000 Euro per ton = 300 Euro + 150 Euro = 450 Euro.
  • Ad valorem, specific atau mixed
    • MFN duties
    • Preferential duties

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slide11
Ad valorem duty lebih dipilih dan paling umum digunakan dari semua customs duties:
    • Lebih transparan dibanding specific duty atau mixed duty
    • Dampak terhadap perlindungan dan efek negatif pada harga di konsumen lebih mudah dianalisis
    • Berdasarkan index – lebih aman pada saat ada inflasi

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tariff barriers to trade in goods3
Tariff barriers to trade in goods
  • Custom duties or tariff
    • Tujuan:
      • Pemasukanbaginegara (revenue for governments) – easy to collect.
      • Melindungiindustridomestik.
      • Mendukungalokasi rational ataskelangkaanvalas – meningkatkanpenggunaanvalasuntukimporbarang e.g. mesinindustri (negaraberlakukan tariff tinggi) danmenghambatpenggunaannyauntukimporbarangmewah e.g. perfume (negaraberlakukan tariff rendah).
      • Instrumenuntukkebijakanpertumbuhan/ perkembanganekonomi.

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tariff
Tariff
  • Punya arti lain.
  • Daftar terstruktur deskripsi produk dan hubungannya dengan customs duty.
  • National tariff kebanyakan mengikuti Harmonised Commodity Description and Coding System = Harmonised System or HS.

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ntb to trade in goods
NTB to trade in goods
  • Quantitative restrictions
  • Rules on quantitative restrictions
  • Administration of quantitative restrictions
  • Other NTB

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ntb to trade in goods1
NTB to trade in goods
  • Quantitative restrictions (QR)
    • Is a measure which limits the quantity of a product that may be imported or exported
      • A prohibition or ban
        • “diberlakukan pada saat tidak dipenuhinya syarat-syarat tertentu”

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ntb to trade in goods2
NTB to trade in goods
  • Quantitative restrictions (QR) - lanjutan
    • Is a measure which limits the quantity of a product that may be imported or exported
      • A quota
        • “measure indicating the quantity that may be imported or exported”
          • Global quota, global quota allocated among countries, bilateral quota
        • Contoh: ketentuan yang membolehkan impor dengan jumlah (atau nilai) maks:
          • 1.000 ton cocoa powder per tahun
          • 450 traktor

(units, weight atau volume)

          • 12 juta Euro flowers

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ntb to trade in goods3
NTB to trade in goods
  • Quantitative restrictions (QR) - lanjutan
    • Is a measure which limits the quantity of a product that may be imported or exported
      • Automatic and non-automatic licensing
        • Import-licensing procedures: administrative procedures….. requiring the submission of an application or other documentation (other than that required for customs purposes) to the relevant administrative body as a prior condition for importation into the customs territory of the importing Member.
      • Other QR
        • Quantitative restriction made effective through State trading operations, a mixing regulation; a minimum price, triggering a quantitative restriction; and a voluntary export restraint.

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slide18
Tariff quotas (TRQ)
    • Is not quota
    • Is not a quantitative restriction
    • Is a quantity which can be imported at a certain duty; any quantity above that amount is subject to a higher tariff
      • Contoh: Anggota dapat membolehkan impor atas 5.000 traktor dengan 10% ad valorem, dan traktor lain yang diimpor dalam jumlah lebih dari 5.000 traktor dikenai 30% ad valorem

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barriers to trade in services
Barriers to trade in services
  • Biasanya disebabkan oleh peraturan pemerintah (domestic regulation)
  • Contoh:
    • A restriction on the number of drugstore allowed within a geographical area
    • An obligation for all practicing lawyers to be a member of the local bar association
    • Sanitation standards for restaurants
    • Technical safety requirements for airline companies
    • A requirement that all professional services are offered in the national language
    • Professional qualification requirements for accountants
    • A prohibition on banks to sell life insurance

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barriers to trade in services1
Barriers to trade in services
  • Banyak peraturan pemerintah dalam bidang jasa yang tidak harmonis dengan GATS-inkonsisten terhadap upaya penghilangan/pengurangan barriers to trade in services.
  • Alasan: sektor produksi dan konsumsi bidang jasa sering dihubungkan dengan
    • Perlindungan konsumen
    • Jaminan terhadap kesehatan masyarakat dan keamanannya
  • Preamble GATS
    • “the right of Members to regulate, and to introduce new regulations on, the supply of services within their territories in order to meet national policy objectives.”

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barriers to trade in services2
Barriers to trade in services
  • Market access barriers to trade in services
  • Other barriers to trade in services

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barriers to trade in services3
Barriers to trade in services
  • Market access barriers to trade in services
    • Art XVI: 2(a) to (f)
      • Pembatasan jumlah service suppliers
      • Pembatasan total nilai transaksi jasa atau aset
      • Pembatasan jumlah total service operations atau total kuantitas service output
      • Pembatasan total jumlah pekerja dalam sektor tertentu
      • Pelarangan atau persyaratan bentuk badan hukum tertentu atau joint venture
      • Pembatasan penyertaan modal asing

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barriers to trade in services4
Barriers to trade in services
  • Market access barriers to trade in services - lanjutan
    • Art XVI: 2(a) to (f)
      • 4 jenis quantitative restrictions
        • Dilihat dari “angka” atau studi kebutuhan ekonomi
        • Namun tidak berkaitan dengan:
          • Kualitas jasa yang disediakan
          • Kemampuan supplier dalam menyediakan jasa: technical standards or qualification of the supplier
      • Pembatasan bentuk badan hukum
      • Pembatasan penyertaan modal asing

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barriers to trade in services5
Barriers to trade in services
  • Akses pasar jasa yang diskriminasi atau non-diskriminasi?
    • Pemberian izin kepada restoran cepat saji yang ditentukan dari studi dari sisi kebutuhan ekonomi berbasis jumlah penduduk (?)
    • Pelarangan waktu tayang terhadap film asing (?)

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barriers to trade in services6
Barriers to trade in services
  • Other barriers to trade in services
    • Lack of transparency
      • Publikasi, saluran keluhan, pemberitahuan, prosedur keberatan
    • Unfair or arbitrary application of measures affecting trade in services
      • Pemberitahuan terhadap putusan atas suatu pendaftaran
    • Domestic regulation

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barriers to trade in services7
Barriers to trade in services
  • Other barriers to trade in services - lanjutan
    • Lack of recognition of diploma and professional certificates
      • 2 cara: harmonisasi atau persetujuan antar negara yang berkepentingan
    • Other measures and actions
      • Monopolies and exclusive service providers (perhatikan komitmen yang telah dibuat)
      • International payments and transfer
      • Government procurement laws and practices (penyediaan barang dan jasa)

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bacaan wajib
Bacaan wajib
  • Van den Bossche, Peter, 2005, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization, Text, Cases and Materials, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • WTO, 1999, The Legal Texts, The Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, Cambridge University Press.
  • Bahan-bahan kuliah lain yang dikirimkan oleh Dosen ke email Anda.

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