Behavior based safety
Download
1 / 49

Behavior based safety - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 208 Views
  • Uploaded on

Behavior based safety. Objectives Today. Identify differences between traditional vs. BBS. Know “when and when not” to implement BBS. Explain why most traditional safety programs don’t work! Understand why positive reinforcement is much more powerful than negative reinforcement.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Behavior based safety' - clinton-galloway


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Objectives today
Objectives Today

  • Identify differences between traditional vs. BBS.

  • Know “when and when not” to implement BBS.

  • Explain why most traditional safety programs don’t work!

  • Understand why positive reinforcement is much more powerful than negative reinforcement.


Why safety programs do not work
Why Safety Programs Do Not Work

  • Safety is a priority, not a value!

  • Safety is not managed in the same manner as production, quality, and cost issues!

  • Safety is not driven through continuous improvement!


Fallacies or realities in safety fables
“Fallacies or Realities” in Safety Fables?

  • Conditions cause accidents!

  • Enforcing rules improves safety!

  • Safety professionals can keep workers safe!

  • Low accident rates indicate safety programs are working well!

  • Investigating to find the root cause of accidents will improve safety!

  • Awareness training improves safety!

  • Rewards improve safety!


Core elements in successful safety programs
Core Elements in Successful Safety Programs

  • A culture that says “safety” is important around here!

  • A tight accountability system!



Behavior based safety what is it
Behavior based safety – what is it?

  • An excellent tool for collecting data on the quality of a company’s safety management system.

  • A scientific way to understand why people behave the way they do when it comes to safety.

  • Properly applied, an effective next step towards creating a truly pro-active safety culture where loss prevention is a core value.

  • Conceptually easy to understand but often hard to implement and sustain.


Behavior based safety what is it not
Behavior based safety – what is it not?

  • Only about observation and feedback.

  • Concerned only about the behaviors of line employees.

  • A substitution for traditional risk management techniques.

  • About cheating & manipulating people & aversive control.

  • A focus on incident rates without a focus on behavior.

  • A process that does not need employee involvement.


Interventions
interventions

Always Consider These 3 Components

Safety Management System

Behaviors

Engineering Controls


Traditional hierarchy of safety
Traditional hierarchy of safety

  • Interventions Included:

  • Attempts to eliminate the hazard.

  • Having employees work around the hazard.

  • Guarding or warning employees about the hazard.

  • Training employees to deal safely with the hazard.


Safety management system interventions
Safety management system interventions

  • 7 Components:

  • Management leadership

    • Vision, values, commitment

    • Safety goals & objectives

    • Costs of safety performance

  • Responsibility & accountability

    • Defined for management & employees

    • Accountable for performance

  • Safety organization

    • Safety committees

    • Safety staff resource

    • Safety budget

  • Safe work practices & procedures

    • General & job specific

    • Housekeeping

    • Contractors

    • Emergency

  • Safety review & improvement

    • A Plan / Do / Check / Act process

    • Accident investigation process

    • Safety audit / inspection process

  • Safety training

    • Based on needs assessments

    • Designed & presented effectively

    • For both management & employees

    • Results in observable changes in behavior on the job

  • Safety communications

    • Internal & external

    • Appropriate for audience

    • Effectiveness of communication methods


If safety interventions are effective
If safety interventions are effective…

  • You will see:

  • % of safe behaviors increasing and the % at-risk behaviors decreasing.

  • Reporting of near misses / hits increasing.

  • Both the number of observations and level of participation increasing.

  • Frequency & severity of injuries decreasing.

  • Increasing acceptance of responsibility and accountability for personal behavior.


Business is behavior

A business succeeds or fails through the performance of all of its employees.

Success = “Good” performance

Failure = “Bad” performance

Performance = the combined results of a series of behaviors

*Aubrey Daniels, author and behavioral psychologist

“Business is Behavior”


Suggested bbs process
Suggested BBS Process of its employees.

  • Discovery - Determine Behaviors That Have Greatest Loss Impact.

  • Design - Identify Team Who Will Define & Design BBS Process.

  • System Up - Implement BBS Observation Process & Collect Data.

  • System Check - Ensure BBS Process Has Been Effectively Implemented.


Observations feedback data collection
Observations, feedback & data collection of its employees.

  • Use a design team of hourly workers, supervisors and managers, to design the process - forms, training, data collection and ID roles & responsibilities.

  • Clearly define critical behaviors that will be observed - what is “safe” vs. “at-risk”?

  • Give feedback on safe & at-risk behavior observed.

  • Determine who will act on data collected through observations.


Use prior experience data to target jobs for observation
Use prior experience data to target of its employees.jobs for observation

  • Loss runs from insurance carrier or broker

  • OSHA logs

  • First aid logs

  • Near miss / hit reports

  • Absenteeism / turnover reports


Define critical behaviors what is safe what is at risk
Define critical behaviors – of its employees.what is safe & what is at risk?

  • Focus on relevant behaviors that will have a direct impact on losses.

  • Many behaviors that are directly related to the losses are unconscious behaviors that occur quickly.

  • Select critical behaviors to focus on through actual observation of people at work - not just through discussion & brainstorming.


Obstacles to success
Obstacles To Success: of its employees.

  • Poorly Maintained Facilities

  • Top-down Management Practices

  • Poor Planning/Execution

  • Inadequate Training


Keys to success
Keys to Success of its employees.

  • Meaningful Employee Empowerment.

  • Designing a Well Planned and Supported BBS Process.

  • Managing BBS Process with Integrity.


Human behavior
Human behavior of its employees.

  • Is a function of:

  • Activators (what needs to be done)

  • Competencies (how it needs to be done)

  • Consequences (what happens if it is done)


Human behavior1
Human Behavior of its employees.

  • Is both:

  • Observable

  • Measurable

  • Therefore…Behavior can be manager!


Attitudes
Attitudes of its employees.

Are inside a person’s head -therefore they are not observable or measurable.

However…Attitudes can be changed by changing behaviors


Antecedents – Trigger Behavior of its employees.

Behavior – Human Performance

Consequences – Either Reinforce or Punish Behavior

ABC Model


Definitions

Activators - A person, place, thing or event that happens before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.

Activators only set the stage for behavior or performance - they don’t control it.

Definitions


Examples of activators
Examples of Activators before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.


Definitions1
definitions before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.

Behavior - Any directly measurable thing that a person does, including speaking, acting, and performing physical functions.


Examples of behavior
Examples of behavior before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.


Definitions2
definitions before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.

  • Consequences - Events that follow behaviors.

  • Consequences increase or decrease the probability that the behaviors will occur again in the future.

If you don’t send in that payment we’ll take you to court

Oh please let it be Bob!


Examples of consequences
Examples of consequences before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.


Consequences how would you view them
Consequences – how would you view them? before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.

Sunbathing

Aggressive Drivers


Only 4 types of consequences
Only 4 Types of Consequences: before a behavior takes place that encourages you to perform that behavior.

  • Positive Reinforcement (R+)

    • "Do this & you'll be rewarded"

  • Negative Reinforcement (R-)

    • "Do this or else you'll be penalized"

  • Punishment (P)

    • "If you do this, you'll be penalized"

  • Extinction (E)

    • "Ignore it and it'll go away"


Consequences influence behaviors based upon individual perceptions of
Consequences Influence Behaviors Based Upon Individual Perceptions of

  • Based upon individual perceptions of:

  • Significance - positive or negative

  • Timing – immediate or future

  • Consistency – certain or uncertain

{

Magnitude - large or small

Impact - personal or other


Both positive r negative r reinforcement can increase behavior

R+ : any consequence that follows a behavior and increases the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future - You get something you want.

R- : a consequence that strengthens any behavior that reduces or terminates the consequence - You escape or avoid something you don’t want.

Both Positive (R+) & Negative (R-) Reinforcement Can Increase Behavior


Good safety suggestion Joe! Keep bringing ‘em up! the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future - You get something you want.

R+

One more report like this and you’re outa here!!

R-


The effects of positive reinforcement
The effects of positive reinforcement the probability that the behavior will occur more often in the future - You get something you want.

Performance

R+

Time


Both punishment extinction decrease behavior

Punishment - a procedure in which a punisher (consequence that decreases the frequency of the behavior it follows) is presented.

- You may get something you don’t want.

Extinction - withholding or non-delivery of positive reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior.

- You don’t get what you want.

Both Punishment & Extinction Decrease Behavior


You bonehead!! You can kiss that bonus for this year good-bye.... and take a few days off without pay!!!

Punishment

Let him cry honey. If we get up every night when he cries he’ll never learn to go to sleep peacefully.

Extinction


The effects of punishment
The effects of punishment good-bye.... and take a few days off without pay!!!

Performance

Punishment

Time


The effects of extinction
The effects of extinction good-bye.... and take a few days off without pay!!!

Performance

Extinction

Time


If you see this type of performance curve you can bet management, by negative reinforcement is the predominant management style

Per

formance

Time


What employees want
What Employees Want management, by negative reinforcement is the predominant management style

  • A Safe Workplace

  • A Positive Workplace

  • To Take Care of One Another

  • To Stop the Hurt!


What management wants
What Management Wants management, by negative reinforcement is the predominant management style

  • An Accident Free Workplace.

  • Empowered Employees.

  • Pro-active Rather Than Re-active Work Process.

  • To Minimize Direct and Indirect Costs and Threat of Liability From Accidents.



If you want to know what people find to be reinforcing
If you want to know what people find to be reinforcing… followed?

Observe what they do when they have the freedom to choose.


The behavior based safety challenge
The behavior based safety challenge followed?

To create conditions that encourage people to collaborate because they want to…not because they have to!


A values based process
A values-based process followed?

“Focus on the process…not results…they will come later!”


Avoid the following headline
Avoid The Following Headline followed?

“Behavior Based Safety Scores Show Significant Improvement while injury rate climbs!”


Why do we need to change
Why Do We Need to Change? followed?

“If you do what you’ve always done, you’ll get what you always got!”

- W. Edwards Deming


ad