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Chapter 8:. Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood. Theories of Social and Personality Development Psychoanalytic Perspectives. Freud: gain control over bodily functions and renegotiate parent relationships Anal Stage Phallic Stage.

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chapter 8

Chapter 8:

Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood

theories of social and personality development psychoanalytic perspectives
Theories of Social and Personality Development Psychoanalytic Perspectives

Freud: gain control over bodily functions and renegotiate parent relationships

  • Anal Stage
  • Phallic Stage
theories of social and personality development psychoanalytic perspectives1
Theories of Social and Personality DevelopmentPsychoanalytic Perspectives

Erikson: agreed with Freud with added focus on social skill development

  • Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt
  • Initiative versus Guilt
gender development
Gender Development

Explanations and Theory:

  • Psychoanalytic Explanations
  • Social-Cognitive Explanations
  • Gender Schema Theory
gender development gender concept sequence
Gender DevelopmentGender Concept Sequence

Gender understanding develops in stages:

  • Gender identity
  • Gender stability
  • Gender constancy
figure 8 2 gender stereotyping in a child s drawing
Figure 8.2 Gender Stereotyping in a Child’s Drawing

“This is how I will look when I grow up.”

What is this five-year-old conveying about her understanding of gender?

gender development sex role knowledge
Gender DevelopmentSex-Role Knowledge

What are the stereotypes?

gender development sex typed behavior
Gender DevelopmentSex-Typed Behavior

Sex-type behavior:

Develops earlier than ideas about gender

Learned from older same-sex children

Learned differently by gender

figure 8 3 gender and playmate preferences
Figure 8.3 Gender and Playmate Preferences

How would you structure preschooler play opportunities?

family relationships and structure parenting styles authoritarian
Family Relationships and StructureParenting Styles: Authoritarian

Parenting Characteristics

High levels of demand and control

Low levels of warmth and communication

Child Consequences

Good school performance

Lower self-esteem and less peer interaction skills

Some subdued; others highly aggressive

family relationships and structure parenting styles permissive
Family Relationships and StructureParenting Styles: Permissive

Parenting Characteristics

High in warmth and communication

Low in demand and control

Child Consequences

Poor adolescent school performance

More aggressive and immature

Less responsible and independent

family relationships and structure parenting styles authoritative
Family Relationships and StructureParenting Styles: Authoritative

Parenting Characteristics

High in warmth and communication

High in demand and control

Child Consequences

Higher self-esteem, independence, and altruism

More parental compliance

Self-confident and achievement-oriented

Better school performance

family relationships and structure parenting styles uninvolved
Family Relationships and StructureParenting Styles: Uninvolved

Parenting Characteristics

Low in levels of demand and control

Low in levels of warmth and communication

Child Consequences

Disturbances in social relationships

More impulsive and antisocial in adolescence

Less competent with peers

Much less achievement-oriented in school

family relationships and structure effects of parenting styles spanking
Family Relationships and StructureEffects of Parenting Styles: Spanking

Most parents believe spanking effective if used sparingly

  • Short-term effects
  • Long-term effects
  • Premack’s principle
is authoritative always best
Is “authoritative” always best?

Authoritative pattern

  • Positive outcomes seen in all ethnic groups
  • More common in white families and middle class
  • Usually more common among intact families
  • Least common among Asian Americans
ethnicity socio economic status and parenting styles
Ethnicity, Socio-Economic Status and Parenting Styles

Authoritarian pattern in Asian American families

  • High levels of school achievement in Asian American children
  • Economic success
  • Maintenance of ethnic identity
ethnicity socio economic status and parenting styles1
Ethnicity, Socio-Economic Status and Parenting Styles

Authoritarian pattern in African American families

  • Enhances children’s potential for self-control and success
  • Prepares children to deal with social forces such as racism that impede social success
  • Reduces use of substance abuse
slide25

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Questions To Ponder

What kind of parenting style was used to raise you? What effects did it have on your development? What style will you use as a parent?

family relationships and structure
Family Relationships and Structure

Family Structure: Diversity in Two-Parent and Single-Parent Families

  • Only 70% of U.S. children lived with both biological parents in 2007.
  • Many children from two-parent families have experienced single-parenting.
  • 2% of U.S. children live with custodial grandparents.
ethnicity and u s family types
Ethnicity and U.S. Family Types

Figure 8.7 Ethnicity and Family Structure

family structure and ethnicity single parents
Family Structure and EthnicitySingle Parents

Family Structure: Single-Parent Families

More common among African Americans and Native Americans

Single mothers are less likely to marry.

Grandparents and other relatives traditionally help support single mothers.

Some single mothers are financially secure.

family relationships and structure other types of family structures
Family Relationships and StructureOther Types of Family Structures

Custodial Grandparents

  • Aging and parenting stress cause anxiety and depression.

Gay and Lesbian Parents

  • No expressed social or cognitive developmental differences between the children of gay and lesbian parents and the children of heterosexual couples.
peer relationships kinds of play
Peer RelationshipsKinds of Play

Successful play associated with development of social skills

can you define two types of aggression
Can you define two types of aggression?

Aggression: Behavior intended to hurt another or object

  • Instrumental
  • Hostile
prosocial behavior and friendships
Prosocial Behavior and Friendships

Prosocial behavior: Actions that benefit or help another person

  • Development of prosocial behavior increases during preschool years.
  • Parental influences affect children’s empathy.