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KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche. PowerPoint Presentation
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KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche.

KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche.

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KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche.

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  1. KEY CONCEPT Every organism has a habitat and a niche.

  2. A habitat differs from a niche. • A habitat is all aspects of the area in which an organism lives. • biotic factors • abiotic factors • An ecological niche includes all of the factors that a species needs to survive, stay healthy, and reproduce. • food • abiotic conditions • behavior

  3. Resource availability gives structure to a community. • Species can share habitats and resources. • Competition occurs when two species use resources in the same way. • Competitive exclusion keeps two species from occupying the same niche.

  4. One species is better suited to the niche and the other will either be pushed out or become extinct. • The niche will be divided. • The two species will further diverge. • Competitive exclusion has different outcomes.

  5. Madagascar South America • Ecological equivalents are species that occupy similar niches but live in different geographical regions.

  6. Questions • List one thing that would be a part of a an organism’s niche? • Explain competitive exclusion. • Produce an example of a behavior that will cause competition between two bird species sharing the same tree.

  7. KEY CONCEPT Organisms interact as individuals and as populations.

  8. Competition and predation are two important ways inwhich organisms interact. • Competition occurs when two organisms fight for thesame limited resource. • Intraspecificcompetition • Interspecificcompetition

  9. Predation occurs when one organism captures and eats another.

  10. Mutualism: both organisms benefit • There are three major types of symbiotic relationships.

  11. Commensalism Human Our eyelashes are home to tiny mites that feast on oil secretions and dead skin. Without harming us, up to 20 mites may be living in one eyelash follicle. Ø Demodicids Eyelash mites find all they need to survive in the tiny follicles of eyelashes. Magnified here 225 times, these creatures measure 0.4 mm in length and can be seen only with a microscope. + Ø + Organism is not affected Organism benefits • There are three major types of symbiotic relationships. • Commensalism: one organism benefits, the other is unharmed

  12. Braconid wasp Braconid larvae feed on their host and release themselves shortly before reaching the pupae stage of development. 0 Parasitism + _ Hornworm caterpillar The host hornworm will eventually die as its organs are consumed by wasp larvae. _ Organism benefits Organism is not affected 0 • There are three major types of symbiotic relationships. • Parasitism: one organism benefits, the other is harmed

  13. There are three major types of symbiotic relationships. • Parasitism meet their needs as ectoparasites (such as leeches) and endopaasites (such as hookworms)

  14. Question • Contrast interspecific and intraspecific competition • Explain why most parasites don’t kill their hosts immediately • Two male lions fight for the same female. What kind of competition is this? • Bacteria living on the roots of some plants convert nitrogen gas to a form the plant can use. The bacteria get food from the plant. What kind of relationship is this? • Barnacles that live on whales benefit by being transported to food sources. The whales are not affected. What kind of relationship is this? • How are endoparasites and ectoparasites alike?

  15. KEY CONCEPT Each population has a density, a dispersion, and a reproductive strategy.

  16. Population density is the number of individuals that live in a defined area. • Population density is a measurement of the number of individuals living in a defined space. • Scientists can calculate population density.

  17. Clumped dispersion Uniform dispersion Random dispersion Geographic dispersion of a population shows how individuals in a population are spaced. • Population dispersion refers to how a population is spread in an area.

  18. clumped • There are three types of dispersion.

  19. uniform • There are three types of dispersion.

  20. random • There are three types of dispersion.

  21. Survivorship curves help to describe the reproductive strategy of a species. • A survivorship curve is a diagram showing the number of surviving members over time from a measured set of births.

  22. Type I—low level of infant mortality and an older population • common to large mammals and humans • Type II—survivorship rate is equal at all stages of life • common to birdsand reptiles • Survivorship curves can be type I, II or III. • Type III—very high birth rate, very high infant mortality • common to invertebrates and plants

  23. Questions • Which survivorship curve represents a species that doesn't care for its young, which have a high infant mortality rate? • How are population density and population dispersal different? • What form of population dispersal is usually seen in territorial organisms? • What is an advantage of clumped dispersion for an organism? • What kind of information does a survivorship curve show?

  24. KEY CONCEPT Populations grow in predictable patterns.

  25. Changes in a population’s size are determined by immigration, births, emigration, and deaths. • The size of a population is always changing. • Four factors affect the size of a population. • immigration • births • emigration • deaths

  26. Population growth is based on available resources. • Exponential growth is a rapid population increase due to an abundance of resources.

  27. Logistic growth is due to a population facing limited resources.

  28. Carrying capacity is the maximum number of individuals in a population that the environment can support. • A population crash is a dramatic decline in the size of a population over a short period of time.

  29. Ecological factors limit population growth. • A limiting factor is something that keeps the size of a population down. • Density-dependent limiting factors are affected by the number of individuals in a given area.

  30. predation • competition • Density-dependent limiting factors are affected by the number of individuals in a given area. • parasitism and disease

  31. unusual weather • natural disasters • human activities • Density-independent limiting factors limit a population’s growth regardless of the density.

  32. Questions • Which type of growth occurs when a population has unlimited resources and no predators? • List a factor causes a population to increase in size? • Construct an example of a factor that can cause a population crash? • Which of the following is a density-dependent limiting factor? • Produce an example of a density-dependent limiting factor? • Why is density a limiting factor for parasites?

  33. KEY CONCEPT Ecological succession is a process of change in the species that make up a community.

  34. Succession occurs following a disturbance in an ecosystem. • Succession regenerates or creates a community after a disturbance. • a sequence of biotic changes • damaged communities are regenerated • new communities arise in previously uninhabited areas

  35. primary succession — started by pioneer species • There are two types of succession.

  36. secondary succession — started by remaining species • There are two types of succession.

  37. Questions • How do fires help succession? • How does secondary succession differ from primary succession? • What do pioneer species do? • Why does primary succession take longer than secondary succession?

  38. KEY CONCEPT As the human population grows, the demand for Earth’s resources increases.

  39. Earth’s human population continues to grow. • Earth’s human carrying capacity is unknown.

  40. Technology has helped to increase Earth’s carrying capacity. • gas-powered farm equipment • medical advancements

  41. The growing human population exerts pressure on Earth’s natural resources. • Nonrenewable resources are used faster than they form. • coal • oil

  42. Renewable resources cannot be used up or can replenish themselves over time. • wind • water • sunlight • Growing use of nonrenewable resources may lead to a crisis. • Resources must be properly managed.

  43. Effective management of Earth’s resources will help meet the needs of the future. • Earth’s resources must be used responsibly. • Careless use of resources makes them unavailable to future generations. • Easter Island isan example ofirresponsibleresource use.

  44. An ecological footprint is the amount of land needed to support a person. • The land must produce and maintain enough • food and water • shelter • energy • waste

  45. amount and efficiency of resource use • amount and toxicity of waste produced • Several factors affect the size of the ecological footprint.

  46. Biodiversity • Why it matters. • Diversity stabilizes ecosystems • Drugs • Cost of services-pollination, air purification, etc. • What is being lost • Over half by end of century • Normal is 10-100 per year • We are losing 1 per 20 min.