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Organisations- og Virksomhedsteori. 5. Undervisningsgang – 4 . marts 2013. Lectures, Spring 2013. Reputation Institute. Introduction Problem identification and analysis Statement of problem(s) Generation and evaluation of solutions Recommendations and implementation Conclusion.

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organisations og virksomhedsteori

Organisations- og Virksomhedsteori

5. Undervisningsgang – 4. marts 2013

reputation institute
Reputation Institute


Problem identification and analysis

Statement of problem(s)

Generation and evaluation of solutions

Recommendations and implementation


social structures
Social structures...


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term Social refers to a characteristic of living organisms (humans in particular, though biologists also apply the term to populations of other animals). It always refers to the interaction of organisms with other organisms and to their collective co-existence, irrespective of whether they are aware of it or not, and irrespective of whether the interaction is voluntary or involuntary.


Relationships among the parts of an organized whole

origins of the social structure concept
Origins of the Social Structure Concept

Webers Ideal Bureaucracy

… means for turning employees of average ability into rational decision makers serving their clients and constituencies with impartiality and efficiency.

Division of Labor

… defines the distribution of responsibilities and assignment of work tasks within an organization, which means the ways jobs are grouped into organizational units; departments etc.

Hierarchy of authority

… refers to the distribution of authority in an organization. High positions implies legal authority and gives the right to make decisions, give direction, and reward and punish others.

Formalized rules and procedures

… involves the extent to which explicit rules, regulations, policies and procedures govern organizational activities. Reduces discretion of own jobs and increasing the sense of control managers maintain. Also discourages innovation and leads to reduced communication levels.

webers ideal bureaucracy
Webers ideal Bureaucracy
  • Max Weber offered an ideal model of organizations as bureaucracies whose main characteristics are summarized below:
  • A fixed division of labor
  • A clearly defined hierarchy of offices, each with its own sphere of competence
  • Candidates for offices are selected on the basis of technical qualifications and are appointed rather than elected
  • Officials are remunerated by fixed salaries paid in money
  • The office is the primary occupation of the office holder and constitutes a career
  • Promotion is granted according to seniority or achievement and is dependent upon the judgment of superiors
  • Official work is to be separated from ownership of the means of administration
  • A set of general rules governing the performance of offices; strict discipline and control in the conduct of the office is expected.
dimensions of organizational social structures
Dimensions of organizational Social Structures
  • Size
  • Administrative component;
    • Line
    • Staff
  • Differentation;
    • Vertical
    • Horizontal
  • Integration
  • Centralization
  • Standardization
  • Formalization
  • Specialization
differentation and integration
Differentation and Integration
  • Lawrence and Lorsh: effective organizational performance is determined by the fit between an organization’s social structure and its environment. In particular, the most successful organizations are those where the degree of differentiation and the means of integration match the demands of the environment.
  • Differentation dimensions;
  • Stable environments => more formalized and hierarchical
  • Greater task uncertainty => relationship oriented, else task oriented
  • Time orientation; Sales / Production => Short & R&D => Long
  • Different goal orientations; sales => customer issues & Production => efficiency
  • Integration: Collaboration required to achieve unity effort
  • Most common integration mechanism is the hierarchy, introducing formal reporting relationships to managers whose task is to coordinate activities and resolve problems.
the organizational lifecycle greiner
The organizational lifecycle - Greiner



Collaboration Phase


Formalization Phase


Delegation Phase


Collectivity Phase

Entrepreneurial Phase

structuration theory
Structuration theory
  • A long-standing debate in sociology pits agency (free will) against structure (determination). Sociologists who favor agency see humans constructing the very social structures that structuralists claim determine behavior.
  • Anthony Giddens described how structuring occurs through the mutual influence of action (agency) and the residue of past action
  • According to Structuration theory, structure both enables and constrains the activities of interacting individuals even as those same activities create the structure that enables and constrains them. Giddens called this idea the duality of structure and agency according to which agents of the organization are both enabled and constrained by structures of resources, routines and expectations
social structures as communities
Social structures as communities
  • The idea of community emphasizes intersubjectively shared knowledge and values as well as voluntary social action
  • Whereas modernist scholars might view a community in objective terms, such as the occupational statuses it confers, symbolic-interpretivists have focused on organizations as communities of practice and as language communities
  • Both approaches explore how shared understandings of organizational realities are constructed and maintained through the recurring interaction of organizational members
  • Communities of practice are based on the idea of self-organization through self-coordinated activity. They are formed when groups of people share ideas and knowledge that allow them to develop new practices as they learn together.
de differentiation
  • According to modernists Lawrence and Lorsch, differentiation consists of the division of the organization into different hierarchical levels and specialized departments. This produces a need for integration which, in turn, creates more differentiation and so on, thus locking an organization into a continuous developmental trajectory.
  • In opposition to these views of social structure, postmodernists adopt the concept of de-differentiation.
  • Over-differentiated organizations need to de-differentiate, which is different from integration. Integration implies coordination of different activities whereas de-differentiation reverses the very conditions of differentiation that created the need for integration in the first place. In de-differentiation, organizations integrate activities, not through hierarchical or structural elaboration, but by allowing people to self-manage and coordinate their own activities
  • Har konsulentfirmaet efter jeres mening brugt de rigtige variabler i bestræbelserne på at kunne diagnosticere strukturproblemer i en organisation
  • Foretag en teoretisk baseret diagnose af de strukturelle problemer på konservatoriet. Hvor er kilden til hovedproblemerne efter jeres mening?? Inddrag gerne sammenligninger fra jeres egne oplevelser fra andre uddannelsesinstitutioner
  • På baggrund af jeres diagnose må i komme med en teoretisk begrundet plan for, hvorledes konservatoriet kan omstrukturere for at løse sine strukturproblemer
next time etc
Next time etc…
  • Lecture on Organizational Culture
  • Exercise