Nuts and Spices By: Ashley, Kristen, Chealsa, and Melinda
Objective • Extract oils from both walnuts and hazelnuts and compare IR and GC-MS results to the standards • Extract oil from nutmeg and caraway seeds and compare the IR and GC-MS data to that of the standards, eugenol, limonene, and carvone.
Importance of Experiment • To develop a good extraction technique for the essential oils of nuts and spices. • The SFE was a good choice of instrumentation because it is one step and is more green for the environment. • Nut oils are used primarily for cooking and there is a huge market for them. • Spice essential oils are used for fragrance and can be sold for other purposes.
Procedure • SFE • We used a range from 2-5g of sample masses • Ran each sample twice • Massed extracted samples • Ran product using IR and GS-MS
Procedure (Continued) • FTIR was used for all standards and extracted products except that from caraway seed • GC-MS • 12 drops of analyte were dissolved in 15mL of hexane and ran on the instrument
Data • SFE extracted products • Day 2: 0.4403g hazelnut oil (2.0615g nuts) • Day 3: 0.7285g hazelnut oil (5.0136g nuts) • 0.6921g hazelnut oil (4.7657g nuts) • Day 4: 0.8113g walnut oil (4.5077g nuts) • 0.5656g walnut oil (4.5877g nuts) • Day 5: 0.5757g nutmeg oil (4.5113g nutmeg) • 0.9846g nutmeg oil (4.5088g nutmeg) • Day 6: 0.0748g ? (4.4244g caraway seeds) • 0.0274g ? (4.6563g caraway seeds)
Data • FTIR • Nutmeg oil has all expected peaks of the literature value • Eugenol matches literature value but does not match the extracted product • Extracted walnut oil is identical to the standard with all of the same principal peaks • Extracted hazelnut oil is identical to the standard with all of the same principal peaks
Data (GC-MS) Walnut Standard Hazelnut Standard Hazelnut Sample
Data (GC-MS) Eugenol Standard Limonene Standard
Error • SFE product • Too low of mass resulted in not enough product • Nutmeg • Was a waxy solid with a yellow • Not actually eugenol (IR spectrum) • Caraway Seeds • Unable to crush with a mortar and pestle (crack) • Not a an oil or a solid • Unable to run FTIR of GC-MS on product • Cannot conclude what was extracted
Error (continued) Walnut Sample Carvone standard
Problems • Timing issues • Correcting the SFE • So many people using the SFE so it needed extra cleaning • Leading to 2 samples a day instead of 3 • IR • Amount of sample we had available to run • GC-MS • The instrument itself during the second week no longer held pressure and required daily checks and could only run 1 sample a day these are the error samples
Conclusion • Overall Hazelnut and Walnut oils were very successful matching up to the IR spectras • Nutmeg did not match up to the expected standard but did after looking at our results we found it matched nutmeg oil. • Unexpected Success • Caraway Seeds were overall unsuccessful and we did not have enough time to analyze our product due to issues with the GC-MS
Further Possibilities • We could run other nuts since the two we ran were so successful. • We could develop a better technique for the extraction of caraway seeds. • In the future, the process for determining the best technique for each spice or nut could be worked out. • We could also do further research and determine if essential oils can be extracted from any other foods or products.
Thanks to… Amanda =] Oh, SFE Problems