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HERB AND SPICES. Impart aroma, color and taste to food preparation Aromatic fruits, flower, bark Mask undesirable odor Used as medicines, natural dyes, perfume, cosmetics Chemically alcohols, aldehydes, amines, esters, ketones, terpenes, . Essential oils. Aroma due to essential oils

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herb and spices
HERB AND SPICES
  • Impart aroma, color and taste

to food preparation

  • Aromatic fruits, flower, bark
  • Mask undesirable odor
  • Used as medicines, natural dyes, perfume, cosmetics
  • Chemically alcohols, aldehydes, amines, esters, ketones, terpenes,
essential oils
Essential oils
  • Aroma due to essential oils
  • Can be extracted through fractional distillation
  • Essential oils common in leaves, flowers, bark, root, stem, glands etc.
  • Fatty oils: Produced only in seeds
  • Volatile lipid (oil) soluble portion of fluid of plant with odoriferous compounds produced through steam distillation of plant matter
slide3

Secondary plant product

  • These oils are characterized as terpenes
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons with isoprene molecules (C5H6)
  • Complex mixture
  • Orange oil 34 alcohols, 30 esters and 20 aldehydes, 14 ketones, 10 carboxylic acids,

and 36 varieties of Terpenoids compounds

  • Life Blood of plants: Circulate through plant tissues, pass through cell wall, carrying nutrients to cells and waste products out
slide4

When applied, carry oxygen to cell and waste products out

  • Natural Cleanser
  • Act as hormones within plant body
  • Maintain homeostasis
  • Antimicrobial
  • Repel Insects
  • Act as herbicide
  • Desert bushes secrete oil
  • Protection in Lima beans against spider mites
slide5

Tendency to identify good bacteria and nourish them

  • Alkalize body in contradiction to antibodies
  • Shield from sunlight in desert plants
  • Platyphyllol from cajeput oil a good blocker of UV light and used in commercial skin blocks
  • Haze in Western United States during dry period a cloud of essential oils preventing plant from dehydration
slide6

Help in pollination through smell

  • Communication between plant and animal either through smell or sight
  • Most insects color blind
  • Small terpenes (mono) important constituent of essential oil
  • Large Terpenoids (tetraterpenoid) give color to carrot, tomato etc
  • Catnip plant loved by cats secret pheromones
slide7

Pheromones message carrying molecules i.e., aldehydes, ketones , esters etc.

  • Jasmine attracts certain night flying insect so

strongest fragrance released after midnight

  • When a flower ages, pollination completed,

loses its scent because its purpose is fulfilled

slide8

Essential oils are end products of metabolic pathways

  • In flowers, they serve as pollinators due to their alluring scent
  • Discourage herbivores, insects, bacteria and

Fungal pathogens

  • Antimicrobial properties
  • Kill food borne bacteria
  • Onion, garlic
aromatherapy
Aromatherapy
  • Healing using essential oils
  • Connection of mind, body and spirit to overcome sickness
  • Essential oils can be absorbed through nose, lungs and skin that trigger physiological responses
  • Oil can affect immune system and endocrine system, mood, memory, emotions and performance
slide14

Oils antiseptic, anti-inflammatory

  • Using Vicks (active ingredients camphor, menthol, eucalyptus oil) aromatherapy
  • Lavender oil useful
  • Some oils toxic due to high ketones content
commonly used essential oils for aromatherapy
Commonly used Essential oils for Aromatherapy

Essential oils Common uses

Bulgarian rose Antiseptic

Eucalyptus Anti-inflammatory

Ginger Bronchitis

Lavender Antiseptic, Relaxation

Pine Asthma

Rosemary Depression

Sandalwood Acne, Depression

cinnamon
Cinnamon
  • Fragrant Bark from Cinnamomum zeylanicum tree
  • Native to India, Sri Lanka
  • Outer bark is scraped away and inner cut into fragments
  • Used for baking, medicines, perfumes, scents
black and white pepper
Black and White Pepper
  • Obtained from dried berries of Piper nigrum
  • Family Piperaceae
  • Peppercorn or ground form
ginger and turmeric
Ginger and Turmeric
  • Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) rhizome of family

Zingiberaceae

  • Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
  • Both medicinal plant due to antimicrobial properties
saffron
Saffron
  • World most expensive spice
  • Delicate stigma of Crocus sativus
  • Zafaran (Arabic word) yellow
  • Stigma from 150,000-20,000 flowers yield 1kg of spice
herbs
Herbs
  • Aromatic leaves
  • Mint (Lamiaceae) important source of herb
  • Peppermint, oregano, sweet basil, thyme
  • Herbs reflect cultures
  • Menthol constituent of peppermint oil
slide25

Oregano

Thyme

slide26

Brassicaceae (Mustard family)

  • Seeds of Brassica nigra, B. alba used as herbs
  • Mustard produced from seeds of B. alba
  • Antimicrobial properties
  • Used in aromatherapy
herbs as dye
Herbs as Dye
  • Direct dyes soluble in water and picked up by fibres
  • Turmeric and safflower direct dye
  • Mordant dyes do not impart color directly
  • Need to be treated with mordant
  • Mordant fixes the dye to the fabric
  • Lichens contain alum, a mordant
books recommended
Books Recommended
  • Chemistry of Essential oils by David Stewart