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  1. HERB AND SPICES • Impart aroma, color and taste to food preparation • Aromatic fruits, flower, bark • Mask undesirable odor • Used as medicines, natural dyes, perfume, cosmetics • Chemically alcohols, aldehydes, amines, esters, ketones, terpenes,

  2. Essential oils • Aroma due to essential oils • Can be extracted through fractional distillation • Essential oils common in leaves, flowers, bark, root, stem, glands etc. • Fatty oils: Produced only in seeds • Volatile lipid (oil) soluble portion of fluid of plant with odoriferous compounds produced through steam distillation of plant matter

  3. Secondary plant product • These oils are characterized as terpenes • Unsaturated hydrocarbons with isoprene molecules (C5H6) • Complex mixture • Orange oil 34 alcohols, 30 esters and 20 aldehydes, 14 ketones, 10 carboxylic acids, and 36 varieties of Terpenoids compounds • Life Blood of plants: Circulate through plant tissues, pass through cell wall, carrying nutrients to cells and waste products out

  4. When applied, carry oxygen to cell and waste products out • Natural Cleanser • Act as hormones within plant body • Maintain homeostasis • Antimicrobial • Repel Insects • Act as herbicide • Desert bushes secrete oil • Protection in Lima beans against spider mites

  5. Tendency to identify good bacteria and nourish them • Alkalize body in contradiction to antibodies • Shield from sunlight in desert plants • Platyphyllol from cajeput oil a good blocker of UV light and used in commercial skin blocks • Haze in Western United States during dry period a cloud of essential oils preventing plant from dehydration

  6. Help in pollination through smell • Communication between plant and animal either through smell or sight • Most insects color blind • Small terpenes (mono) important constituent of essential oil • Large Terpenoids (tetraterpenoid) give color to carrot, tomato etc • Catnip plant loved by cats secret pheromones

  7. Pheromones message carrying molecules i.e., aldehydes, ketones , esters etc. • Jasmine attracts certain night flying insect so strongest fragrance released after midnight • When a flower ages, pollination completed, loses its scent because its purpose is fulfilled

  8. Essential oils are end products of metabolic pathways • In flowers, they serve as pollinators due to their alluring scent • Discourage herbivores, insects, bacteria and Fungal pathogens • Antimicrobial properties • Kill food borne bacteria • Onion, garlic

  9. Aromatherapy • Healing using essential oils • Connection of mind, body and spirit to overcome sickness • Essential oils can be absorbed through nose, lungs and skin that trigger physiological responses • Oil can affect immune system and endocrine system, mood, memory, emotions and performance

  10. Oils antiseptic, anti-inflammatory • Using Vicks (active ingredients camphor, menthol, eucalyptus oil) aromatherapy • Lavender oil useful • Some oils toxic due to high ketones content

  11. Commonly used Essential oils for Aromatherapy Essential oils Common uses Bulgarian rose Antiseptic Eucalyptus Anti-inflammatory Ginger Bronchitis Lavender Antiseptic, Relaxation Pine Asthma Rosemary Depression Sandalwood Acne, Depression

  12. Bulgarian rose

  13. Cinnamon • Fragrant Bark from Cinnamomum zeylanicum tree • Native to India, Sri Lanka • Outer bark is scraped away and inner cut into fragments • Used for baking, medicines, perfumes, scents

  14. Cinnamomum zeylanicum

  15. Black and White Pepper • Obtained from dried berries of Piper nigrum • Family Piperaceae • Peppercorn or ground form

  16. Piper nigrum

  17. Ginger and Turmeric • Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) rhizome of family Zingiberaceae • Turmeric (Curcuma longa) • Both medicinal plant due to antimicrobial properties

  18. Saffron • World most expensive spice • Delicate stigma of Crocus sativus • Zafaran (Arabic word) yellow • Stigma from 150,000-20,000 flowers yield 1kg of spice

  19. Crocus sativus

  20. Herbs • Aromatic leaves • Mint (Lamiaceae) important source of herb • Peppermint, oregano, sweet basil, thyme • Herbs reflect cultures • Menthol constituent of peppermint oil

  21. Oregano Thyme

  22. Brassicaceae (Mustard family) • Seeds of Brassica nigra, B. alba used as herbs • Mustard produced from seeds of B. alba • Antimicrobial properties • Used in aromatherapy

  23. Herbs as Dye • Direct dyes soluble in water and picked up by fibres • Turmeric and safflower direct dye • Mordant dyes do not impart color directly • Need to be treated with mordant • Mordant fixes the dye to the fabric • Lichens contain alum, a mordant

  24. Books Recommended • Chemistry of Essential oils by David Stewart