WISC–IVThe KIT Administration Manual Technical Manual Stimulus Book (9" X 6") Blocks Symbol Search/Coding Booklet Cancellation Booklet Record Form
Where Could We Be Going? • Elimination of the Ability-Achievement Discrepancy • Emphasizing Cognitive Processing Information provided by the IQ Test • Replacement of the traditional “Wait to Fail” model • Increase in focus on Pre-referral Assessment and Intervention • Changing of the definition of Learning Disability
Revision Goals • Update & Strengthen Theoretical Foundations • Enhance Clinical Utility • Improve Psychometric Properties • Increase and Enhancing User-Friendliness • Maintain Continuity and Familiarity
Update & Strengthen Theoretical Foundations • Current Status of Intelligence Theory • Use of Factor Index Scores • Emphasizes multiple factors in cognitive abilities • De-emphasizes reliance on VIQ and PIQ to characterize a child’s overall cognitive abilities • Consistent with WPPSI-III and WAIS-III • Enhanced Measures of Fluid Reasoning • Tasks that involve “manipulating abstractions, rules, generalizations, and logical relationships” require fluid intelligence (Carroll, 1993, p. 583). MR, PCO, and WR developed to enhance the measures of fluid intelligence
Update & Strengthen Theoretical Foundations • Enhanced Measures of Working Memory • Emphasizes the importance of working memory in learning • Focuses on more “active” types of working memory • Enhanced Measures of Processing Speed • Targets role as “mediator” in cognitive functioning and learning • Recognizes impact as predictor of reading comprehension
Enhanced Clinical Utility • Increasing Number of Special Group Validity Studies • Updating Statistical Linkage to Other Cognitive Measures and Measures of Achievement
MentalRetardation – Mild Mental Retardation – Moderate Learning Disorder – Reading Learning Disorder – Reading, Writing Learning Disorder – Reading, Writing, and Math Learning Disorder – Math Receptive Language Disorder Receptive/Expressive Language Disorder ADHD ADHD/LD Combined Motor Impaired Autism/Aspergers TBI – Open TBI – Closed Intellectually Gifted Enhancing Clinical Utility Increased and Enhanced Clinical Validity Studies
Enhancing Clinical Utility Increased Linkage and Correlations with Other Assessments • Equivalency studies with WISC-III, WAIS-III, WPPSI-III, WASI, approximately 200 cases each, counterbalanced • WIAT-II Link, 550 cases • CMS Link, 110 cases • Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS) Link, 200 cases each for Parent/Teacher forms • Bar-ON EQ, 200 cases • Gifted Rating Scale, 240 cases
Improved Psychometric Properties • Updating Norms • Improving Evidence of Reliability and Validity • Extending Floors and Ceilings • Re-examining Item Bias
Increased User-Friendliness • Decreasing Testing Time • Simplifying Administration and Scoring Procedures • Improving Stimulus Materials • Eliminating the Object Assembly subtest • Dividing and Reorganizing the Manual • Dividing and Reorganizing the Record Form
Reasons for Updating Norms • Improvement in Education System • Improved nutrition • Better health conditions • Increased dissemination of information • Demographic shifts • Hispanic population growth (11% to 15%) • Regional growth (Growth in West and South at the expense of NE)
Basic Description of the WISC–IV • Individual Administration • Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Children 6–16 Years • 10 Subtests to obtain FSIQ • 10 Subtests to obtain Index Scores • 3 Core Verbal and 3 Core Perceptual Reasoning Subtests • 2 Core Working Memory and 2 Core Processing Speed Subtests • Administration time: median = 67 minutes
Verbal Comprehension Index Core Subtests: • Similarities • Vocabulary • Comprehension Supplementary Subtests: • Information • Word Reasoning
Perceptual Reasoning Index Core Subtests: • Block Design • Picture Concepts • Matrix Reasoning Supplementary Subtest: • Picture Completion
Working Memory Index Core Subtests: • Digit Span • Letter-Number Sequencing Supplementary Subtest: • Arithmetic
Processing Speed Index Core Subtests: • Coding • Symbol Search Supplementary Subtest: • Cancellation
Core Subtests Block Design Similarities Digit Span Picture Concepts Coding Vocabulary Letter – Number Sequencing Matrix Reasoning Comprehension Symbol Search Supplemental Subtests Picture Completion Cancellation Information Arithmetic Word Reasoning Order of WISC-IV Subtests
Block Design • 14 items—two parts • 3 new items designed to improve ceiling and item difficulty gradient • No time-bonus administration option
Block Design • Any pronounced rotation of 30o or more is considered an error. • Correct only the first rotation that occurs by rotating the blocks to the correct position andsaying,“See, it goes this way.”Continue subtest administration accordingly.
Block Design • Designed to measure the ability to analyze and synthesize abstract visual stimuli and nonverbal concept formation. • Involves nonverbal fluid reasoning, visual perception and organization, visual-motor coordination, spatial visualization, and the ability to separate figure and ground in visual stimuli.
Similarities • Core Subtest • 23 items • 11 new items–Scoring criteria modified • Practice items reduced from 5 to 2 “In what way are RED and BLUE alike?”
Similarities • Designed to measure fluid verbal reasoning and concept formation. • Also involves auditory comprehension, memory, distinguishing non-essential and essential features, and verbal expression.
Digit Span • Digit Span Forward requires the child to repeat numbers in the same order the examiner reads aloud. Digit Span Backward requires the child to repeat the numbers in the reverse order presented by the examiner.
Digit Span • Designed as a measure of working memory (initial encoding & mental manipulation), auditory short-term memory, sequencing skills, attention, and concentration. • Digit Span Forward involves initial encoding, attention,and auditory processing. • Digit Span Backward involves mental manipulation, transformation of information, and visuospatial imaging. • Shift from the Forward to the Backward task requires cognitive flexibility and mental alertness.
Picture Concepts • 28 items–The child is presented with two or three rows of pictures and chooses one picture from each row to form a group with a common characteristic.
Picture Concepts • Designed to measure abstract, fluid, and categorical reasoning ability. • Solutions to easier items are generally attained by reasoning based on concrete representations, and the solutions to more difficult items are obtained by reasoning based on more abstract representations.
Coding • Measures processing speed • Involves short-term memory, learning ability, visual perception, visual-motor coordination, visual scanning ability, cognitive flexibility, attention, motivation and visual and sequential processing.
Vocabulary • 36 items • 4 picture items designed to extend the floor of the subtest. • 32 verbal items—5 new items to improve item difficulty gradient. Scoring modifications onall items. “What is a car?”
Vocabulary • Designed to assess a child’s word knowledge and degree of language development. Also designed to measure a child’s fund of knowledge, learning ability, long-term memory, and verbal concept formation. • Other abilities that may be utilized include auditory perception and comprehension, verbal conceptualization, abstract thinking, and verbal expression.
Letter-Number Sequencing • Measures Working Memory • Adapted from the WAIS–III • Child is presented a series of numbers and letters. The child repeats numbers then letters in order. • Involves sequencing, mental manipulation, attention, short-term auditory memory, visuospatial imaging, and processing speed.
Letter-Number Sequencing Example: Examiner says, “7 K 3 D 9” Child responds, “3 7 9 D K”
Definitions of Fluid Reasoning • It is the “ability to perform mental operations, such as the manipulation of abstract symbols”Sternberg, 1995 • It is Gf from the Horn–Catell modelCatell, 1941; Horn, 1968 • It encompasses the abilities of reasoning under novel conditions: general reasoning, figural relations, semantic relations, classifications, concept formation.Horn & Noll, 1997
Matrix Reasoning • 35 items—child completes matrices from five response options.
Matrix Reasoning • Measure of fluid intelligence and a reliable estimate of general intellectual ability. • Four types of matrices including: continuous and discrete pattern completion, classification, analogical reasoning, and serial reasoning.
Comprehension • 21 items—all items require the child to answer questions. • 11 new items and 10 items retained. “Why do people brush their teeth?”
Comprehension • Measures verbal reasoning and conceptualization, the ability to evaluate and utilize past experiences, verbal comprehension and expression, and the ability to demonstrate practical information. • Involves knowledge of conventional standards of behavior, social judgment, maturity, and common sense.
Symbol Search • Nonverbal Measure of Processing Speed • Uses abstract symbols • 2 target symbols per item • 5 search symbols per item • Equal difficulty across all items • Difficulty range from .85 to 1.0
Symbol Search • Involves processing speed, short-term visual memory, visual-motor coordination, cognitive flexibility, visual discrimination, and concentration. • May also tap auditory comprehension, perceptual organization, and planningand learning ability.
Picture Completion • 38 items—all artwork has been redrawn, enlarged and colorized. • 25 items retained, 13 new items to improve difficulty gradient.
Picture Completion • Now a Supplemental Subtest. • Measures visual perception and organization, concentration, and visual recognition of essential details of objects.
Cancellation • Supplemental Subtest • Measure of Processing Speed • 2 forms (Random, Structured) • Forms share identical target locations. • Targets are animals. • Foils are common, non-animal objects.
Random vs. Structured(Targets in same location) • Measures processing speed, visual selective attention, vigilance, and visual neglect.
Information • 33 items • 11 new verbal items—22 retained from WISC–III. Some scoring modifications. “Show me your foot.”
Information • Designed to assess a child’s ability to acquire, retain, and retrieve general factual knowledge, commonly referred to as general fund of knowledge. • Involves crystallized intelligence, long-term memory, and the ability to retain and retrieve knowledge from school and environment. Also involves auditory perception and comprehension and verbal expressive ability.
Arithmetic • Supplemental Working Memory Subtest • The child mentally solves a series of orally presented arithmetic problems within a specified time limit. “Count these birds with your finger. Count them out loud so I can hear you.”
Arithmetic • Involves mental manipulation, concentration, attention, short- and long-term memory, numerical reasoning ability, and mental alertness. • May also involve sequencing, fluid reasoning, and logical reasoning.
Word Reasoning • 24 items—Examiner reads increasingly specific series of one to three clues and the child is asked to identify the common object or concept. “Tell me what I’m thinking of. This is an animal that goes ‘woof.’ What is it?” “Tell me what I’m thinking of. • This has a long handle… • and is used with water to clean the floor.