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IGCC: BHEL’S EXPERIENCE PowerPoint Presentation
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IGCC: BHEL’S EXPERIENCE

IGCC: BHEL’S EXPERIENCE

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IGCC: BHEL’S EXPERIENCE

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  1. IGCC: BHEL’S EXPERIENCE

  2. GOINDWAL CHANDIGARH HARDWAR RUDRAPUR NEW DELHI JAGDISHPUR JHANSI VARANASI BHOPAL KOLKATA PATNA VADODARA NAGPUR HYDERABAD BANGALORE CHENNAI RANIPET TIRUCHIRAPALLY BHEL – Activity Locations • Registered Office & Corporate HQ : New Delhi • 15 Manufacturing plants • 8 Service Centres • 4 Power Sector Regional HQs • 15 Regional Operations offices • Corporate R & D Division : Hyderabad • Over 100 Project construction sites in India & Abroad BHEL supplied Power Plants in India Corp. P&D

  3. Operating Business Areas International Operations Power Industry Captive Power Plants Boilers, STGs, Auxiliaries, C&I Systems, DG Thermal Boilers, STG, Auxiliaries, ESP EPC Hydro Turbines, Generators Controls Gas Open Cycle, Combined Cycle Nuclear STG SG Power Transmission Switchgear, Transformers Insulators, Substations SCADA, HVDC Systems Transportation AC/DC Locos Diesel electrics Locos EMUs, Traction Electrics Other Products On-Shore Oil Rigs Compressors, NCES Desalination Plants Valves, Motors Serving core & Infrastructure sectors of the Economy

  4. Engineering and Technology Focus • Products & systems are highly Technology intensive. R&D and Technology Development are of strategic importance • Judicial mix of in-house developments with import of critical technologies to meet Indian market requirements • R&D expenditure 2.27 % of Turnover – Highest by any Indian Engineering Company • Current major development - Coal Gasification for power and other applications and Ultra Super Critical PC plants

  5. Security of Supply • Coal has a very strong strategic role to play because of • the amount available • its wide distribution • ease and low cost of transport • history of price stability • It provides • fuel diversity • security of supply • possibility of stable price • reduced dependence on single source

  6. Characteristics of Indian Coals Ash Content35 - 45 Percent Sulphur < 1 Percent Reactivity Moderately High Ash fusion temp.> 1500 deg C Ash Chemistry High in Silica & Alumina Highly Abrasive Medium Slagging

  7. Technology options Coal Combustion Gasification/IGCC Pulverised coal Fluidised bed Fluidised bed Entrained flow pulverised coal USC units ready Emission issues Low grade coals Fuel flexibility Emission control Mature up to 300MW Scale up/USC Emission reduction Demo/Commercial Plants Pilot/Demo Plants

  8. New Technology Deployment Curve for Coal Research Development Demonstration Deployment Mature Technology Advanced USCPC Plants 760°C 620°C+ CO2 Capture USCPC Plants 620°C+ 600°C IGCC Plants Anticipated Cost of Full-Scale Application Ox fuel <600°C 565°C Expected availability can Increase with time/learning SCPC Plants CO2 Storage Time Not All Technologies at the Same Level of Maturity.

  9. What is coal gasification ? It is a process in which coal, air or oxygen and steam react under conditions of certain temperature and pressure to produce a low or medium calorie fuel gas. Air or oxygen undergoes combustion reaction with part of the carbon in the coal and releases exothermic heat. The balance carbon undergoes gasification reaction with steam, hydrogen and carbon-dioxide, thereby utilizing the exothermic heat released in combustion reaction. Types of gasification process • Moving bed gasification process • Fluidized bed gasification process • Entrained bed gasification process Choice of the process • Fluidized bed gasification process for high ash Indian coals

  10. Coal Gasification Technologies Moving Bed Fluidised Bed Entrained Flow

  11. ADVANTAGES OF PRESSURISED FLUIDISED BED GASIFIER • HIGHER UNIT CAPACITY PER UNIT AREA • IN - BED SULFUR REMOVAL OPTION • NO TAR OR OIL FORMATION AND EASY GAS CLEANING • NO LIQUID EFFLUENT FORMATION • ABILITY TO ACCEPT FINER COALS • CAPABILITY TO ACCEPT WIDE VARIETY OF COALS • BETTER RELIABILITY AND CONTROL • OPERATES IN NON-SLAGGING MODE • BEST SUITED FOR HIGH ASH INDIAN COALS • LOWER CAPITAL AND OPERATING COST COMPARED TO ENTRAINED - BED GASIFIER

  12. Fluidised Bed Gasification • Advantages • Air used as reactant instead of Oxygen • high cost/power consumption of oxygen plant avoided • Low Temperature Operation • Reliability issues due to high temperature operation eliminated • In-situ removal of Sulfur, trace elements • Dry granular ash • Large Fluidised Bed Combustion systems in reliable operation • Issues • Low Calorific Value of Gas (1100 – 1250 Kcal/NM3) • Comparatively high un burnt in ash

  13. Fluidization engineering-Applications Fluidized beds are used as a technical process which has the ability to promote high levels of contact between fluid (Liquid/gases) and solids. In addition, it has following advantageous characteristics: • High surface area contact bet fluid and solid per unit bed volume • High relative velocities between the fluid and the dispersed solid phase. • High levels of intermixing of the particulate phase. • Frequent particle-particle and particle-wall collisions • Uniform temperature throughout the fluidised bed

  14. WHAT IS IGCC? 3 BLOCKS IN COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT STACK GT POWER ST POWER NG OIL STEAM TURBINE GAS TURBINE STEAM GAS EXHAUST H R S G Coal Gas COAL GASIFICATION GAS CLEAN-UP 2 BLOCKS IN COAL GASIFICATION PLANT

  15. WHY IGCC ? • Reduce adverse impact of fossil fuel combustion on environment • Acid rain • Suspended Particulate Matter in atmosphere • Green House Effect Uses Low Grade fuels Environment Friendly Power Generation

  16. IGCC Advantages Conventional IGCC Plant PC fired plant NOx 350 ppm <25 ppm SOx 600 ppm 245 ppm SPM 50 mg/Nm3 2 mg/Nm3 CO2 Emission High 10% Less Fuel consumption High 5-7% less Water consumption High 40% Less Low Emission, High Efficiency

  17. Environmental Targets 1 Based on EPRI’s CoalFleet User Design Basis Specification for Coal-Based IGCC Power Plants 2 Based on BACT analysis, exceeding new NSPS requirements 3 Based on EPA pipeline natural gas specification and 40 CFR Part 60, Subpart KKKK 18

  18. C O A L G A S I F I C A T I O N P L A N T Power Fuel gas Liquid fuels chemicals

  19. Coal based IGCC plants

  20. New Coal-Based IGCC Plants

  21. IGCC Technology status - world

  22. IGCC - Technology for present and future • Higher Efficiency • Environment friendly Power • Option to switch to Natural Gas in future, when available and cost effective • Easy adaptability to meet future environmental norms • Ease of Capture of CO2 • Coal gas from Gasifier can be used for conversion to oil, chemical and Hydrogen in addition to power generation

  23. Gasification characteristics of Indian Coal & IGCC Gasification and IGCC developments in BHEL Objectives: • Efficient utilization of high ash Indian coals in utility of power generation employing advance IGCC technology • Development of appropriate process technology and equipment for gasification and associated subsystems • Development of simulation model and optimal system integration • Development of process technology for gas clean-up Indo-Japan Workshop on Clean Coal Technology

  24. IGCC Development - BHEL PFBG Retrofit to 6.2 MW CCDP 182 MW IGCC Demonstration Plant PFBG Pilot Plant Studies(18TPD PEDU) 200 mm test facility Learning PFB Gasification Technology for Indian coals established. Design parameters met/exceeded 6.2 MW IGCC Pilot Plant (CCDP) with Moving Bed Gasifier Learning Gasifier & Wet gas Clean up Design & Operation System Integration

  25. 6.2 MW IGCC Plant at BHEL, Tiruchi

  26. Parameters of 6.2MWe IGCC with moving - bed gasifier Parameter Unit Design Actual Type of coal Singareni Singareni Ash content Percent 37 39 Coal capacity tpd 150 140 Kg/cm2(g) 10 10 Gas pressure Deg C 590 540 - 590 Gas temperature Gross Calorific Value Kcal/Nm3 1200 1100 - 1490 Specific gas yield Nm3/kg coal 2.0 1.90 - 2.38 Carbon conversion Percent 86 91 Objective: To gain experience on system integration and operation of gasifier in IGCC mode

  27. Schematic of 6.2MWe IGCC with moving bed gasifier

  28. Summary of operation Moving - bed gasifier Parameters Longest continuous operation, hours 635 Cumulative operation, hours 5500 Total number of gasification runs 20 Total number of operations in IGCC mode 7 Carbon conversion efficiency, percent 79 - 91 Cold gas efficiency, percent 68 - 79 Power generation, MWe Gas turbine : Steam turbine : 3.8 1.5 Hot box-up and restart established in gasification mode

  29. Different Views of APFBG Pilot Plant

  30. 200mm APFBG PLANT • Objective: • To create a research facility with maximum flexibility for carrying out fundamental development work • Design Parameters: • Coal throughput : 1.2 TPD • Coal size range : - 4mm • Gasifier inside dia. : 200mm • Free Board dia : 200/250mm • Pressure : 3 ata • Temperature : 1050oC • Velocity : 1.8m/s • Additional facilities • Candle filter for medium temperature gas cleaning • PC based control and data acquisition system • Bottom ash carbon burn up system- optional • Inbed gas sampling facility • Provision for Radio tracer studies • Recycle of cyclone fines • Bed pressure drop measurement

  31. R&D Studies conducted on AFBG • Optimization of reactant ratios for different coals • Effect of blast temperature • Fines re-cycle using loop seal • Performance of ceramic candle filters • Tracer studies for estimation of particle residence time & solid flow pattern • Estimation of trace contaminants in different streams • Bed ignition using Hydrogen fired catalytic combustor • Testing of different solid fuels • Gasifier performance with oxygen enriched air and steam

  32. Process evaluation and Demonstration Unit (PEDU) at R&D, Hyderabad Coal throughput18 T / DAY Gasifier diameter450 mm Gasification mediaAIR / Steam mix Gasification temp.1000º C Gasification pr.11 kg / cm2 Gas calorific value 1050 Kcal / Nm3

  33. 18 TPD Pressurised Fluidized Bed Gasification Pilot Plant (PEDU)

  34. Phased Developmental Studies PEDU Phase - I PERFORMANCE TESTING AND PROCESS RELIABILITY Phase - II SYSTEM OPTIMISATION PERFORMANCE OPTIMISATION AND RELIABILITY OF GASIFICATION PROCESS UNDER ELEVATED SYSTEM PRESSURE Phase - III

  35. PEDU - Summary of operations Phase I Phase II Phase III Hot gas start up implemented Recycle of cyclone ash tested Improvement in gas calorific value upto 1020 kcal/ Nm3 Long duration operation: 204 hrs Cumulative operation: 500 hrs Development of distributor design Start up with charcoal Testing with coals of 35-40 %ash Operating pressure : 2 - 10 ata Operation Methodology Test duration: 48 hrs Cumulative operation: 1200 hrs Parametric studies Testing with coals of 28-52 % ash Carbon conversion upto 90 % Specific gas yield: 2.1-2.7 Nm3/ kg Gas calorific value: 900-1000kcal/Nm3 Cumulative operation: 800 hrs Learnings Hot gas start up improves ignition and change over Recycling improved carbon conversion and gas yield Equipment performance at design pressure proved Process tested Start up to be modified Refractory lining changed Modification of start up and establishing operation methodology Bench marking of parameters to suit coal types

  36. PEDU - Performance Summary Parameter Unit Design Actual Type of coal Singareni Singareni Ash content Percent 37 28 - 52 Cold gas efficiency Percent 70 62 Gas pressure Kg/cm2(g) 10 9 Gas temperature Deg C 1050 950 - 1000 High Calorific Value Kcal/Nm3 1150 950 - 1097 Specific gas yield Nm3/kg coal 3.0 1.96 - 2.70 Carbon conversion Percent 90 75 - 90 Hot gas efficiency Percent 90 75 - 83 Total operation : 2500 hours Longest single run : 204 hours

  37. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT DEVELOPMENT UNIT (PEDU) • The pilot plant was designed with in-house expertise • Established for assessment of performance of gasifier and subsystems • Concurrent cold model studies for refinement in the performance of gasifier and subsystems • Resulted in the development of air-steam distributor, fines recycle system, operation methodology, process control philosophy • Capability for design and fabrication of process equipment and scale up to commercial size plant established • Optimum operating parameters and reliable gasifierperformance established

  38. Panoramic view of the CCDP at BHEL, Tiruchy

  39. Schematic of 6.2 MWe IGCC plant with PFBG

  40. Parameters of 6.2MWe IGCC with pressurised fluidized- bed gasifier Parameter Unit Design Actual Type of coal Singareni Singareni Ash content Percent 42 32 Coal capacity tpd 168 132 Kg/cm2(g) 12.5 11.5 Gas pressure Deg C 1000 975 Gas temperature Kcal/Nm3 1050 1170 High Calorific Value Specific gas yield Nm3/kg coal 2.57 2.50 Carbon conversion ( *without recycle of cyclone fines ) Percent 85 85* Objective: To demonstrate the PFBG technology and its integration with IGCC

  41. Gasifier Operation • Continuous operation of the demo plant is carried out to confirm the reliability & performance of the gasifier. • Gasifier was operated for more than 4100 hrs or 200days. • Gas produced from gasifier is given to HPBP furnaces. • More than 30000 tons of gas supplied to HPBP. • Gained experience in continuous operation & the performance of gasifier is as per expectations. • Plant has logged about 10,000 hours of operation so far.

  42. Gasifier Operation-Operating parameters • The Gasifier was operated at variable load condition to meet the demand and to check the reliability • Gas Flow rate : 5000-10500 kg/hr • Gasifier pressure: 3-7 kg/Sq. cm • Temperature: 950-1050 deg C • Calorific Value of Syngas: 950-1050 Kcal/Nm3

  43. Fly Ash Recycle Studies • BHEL has experience of fly ash recycle • with non mechanical valves in CFBC boiler • To improve carbon conversion, the system • was adopted in Gasifier • System incorporated in CCDP . Unburnt carbon was reduced from about 17 -18% to 12 % • Cold Model Studies in Corporate R&D • Tests in 200 mm rig after incorporating • Loop seal Cold Model

  44. Fly Ash Recycle System with loop seal CFBC Facility CCDP Gasifier

  45. Effect of Recycle on Fly Ash Un-burnt Carbon

  46. PICTORIAL VIEW OF HPTGA FACILITY

  47. PARAMETERS OF KINETIC EXPERIMENTS Gasification Reactions