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Environment Statistics & Accounts Workshop . 07 – 11 March 2010 ADDIS ABABA, ETHIOPIA By: Joseph K. Minnaar Central Bureau of Statistics NAMIBIA. ENVIRONMENT INDICATORS. INTRODUCTION Environment-Economic-Accounts (EEA). ENERGY. Indicators ( 4 )

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environment statistics accounts workshop

Environment Statistics& Accounts Workshop

07 – 11 March 2010


By: Joseph K. Minnaar

Central Bureau of Statistics


environment indicators


Environment-Economic-Accounts (EEA)


Indicators (4)

  • NATIONAL COMMERCIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION: Aggregate commercial energy consumption and trend expressed by energy carrier - Measured in Tonnes of Oil Equivalent (TOE), per capita, per unit GDP (at market prices), as % change from the previous year, and as contribution of energy carriers to total consumption
  • PEAK POWER DEMAND AND ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION: Electricity consumption level and trend expressed by source and sector. - Peak power demand is measured in megawatt (MW), while consumption of electrical energy is measured in gigawatt hours (GWh). The shares of power sources are expressed as percentages.
  • NATIONAL PETROLEUM FUEL CONSUMPTION: Petroleum fuel consumption trends Measured in Tonnes Oil Equivalent; as % of total energy use; per capita, per sector; per petroleum fuel type.
  • COST OF PETROLEUM FUEL: Price of petroleum fuels to the end user.

Measured in N$/GJ


Indicators (3)


Proportion of exports that do not come from traditional sources such as agriculture, mines and fishing. - Expressed as a percentage.


Percentage of urban population who live in municipal areas which are in breach of water quality permits. - Expressed as a percentage


Percentage of industry value added in regions with hazardous waste disposal facilities. - Expressed as a percentage


Indicators (4)

  • ANNUAL UNLEADED PETROL MARKET PENETRATION: The volume unleaded petrol sold as a % of the total petrol sales. The % ratio between total unleaded and total petrol sales annually.
  • ROAD SAFETY: The average number of deaths per capita caused by road traffic accidents. - The total number of accident deaths divided by the total population, both in current figures.
  • ACCESSIBILITY TO PORTS: The total volume of cargo handled. - The sum of all cargo handled through port operations, summed in ton.
  • AVIATION SAFETY: The total number of deaths per passenger transported. - The total number of accident deaths divided by the total passenger count, both in current figures.
freshwater resources

Indicators (17)

  • MEAN ANNUAL RAINFALL: The volume of rain falling over the whole country is calculated using the annual rainfall depths recorded at as many rainfall stations as possible. A surface is fitted over these depths and the volume under the surface calculated.
  • DATA COLLECTION EFFORT:This simple indicator measures the level of effort being put into collection of rainfall data, which is fundamental to water environment studies.
  • ANNUAL RUNOFF: Runoff is measured at key runoff stations by the Hydrology Division in DWA on a continuous basis. These stations are either surface water storage dams or gauging weirs.
  • POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER:The number of sites where unacceptable levels of concentration of contaminants have been measured expressed as a proportion of the total number of sites monitored.
freshwater resources1
  • ROUTINE MONITORING OF WATER LEVELS IN THE NONSTRATEGIC, REGIONAL AQUIFERS: The depth from surface to the rest water level is to be measured in sentinel boreholes designated for this purpose. As the frequency of this monitoring is to be annual it is recommended that measurement be carried out manually.
  • MONTHS OF ADEQUATE ABSTRACTION IN STRATEGIC AQUIFERS: Calculation of the number of months it would take, at current levels of abstraction, to deplete a strategic aquifer assuming no recharge. The geometry and aquifer parameters are known for strategic aquifers and thus a volume of stored groundwater that may be abstracted can be calculated from measurement of rest water levels. Volumes of water pumped are continually monitored and therefore the rate of abstraction can be averaged for certain intervals. Using these two values it is possible to calculate the time it would take to deplete the aquifer.
  • VALUE ADDED: The contribution to GDP per m³ of water used in different economic sectors. Measured in N$/m3. The higher the better.
freshwater resources2
  • MONITORING OF AMBIENT CHANGES IN WATER QUALITY: Changes in ambient water quality are to be monitored through major ion analyses of samples taken from sentinel production boreholes in strategic aquifers. Samples of water are to be taken from sentinel boreholes annually at the end of the dry season and analysed at the NamWater laboratory for major ions.
  • NAMWATER COST RECOVERY: The ratio of “full cost” unit tariffs to existing tariffs. The measurement appears as a percentage such that 50% means that 50% of costs are covered by current NamWater tariffs. The range will be from 0-100% where 100% represents full cost recovery.
  • UNACCOUNTED FOR WATER: The amount of unaccounted for water in an urban centre as a % of total supply to that centre. A comparison needs to be made between the production figures for an urban centre and the level of consumption therein.
freshwater resources3
  • WATER CONSUMPTION BY RESOURCE TYPE: Water consumed as percentage of sustainable supply potential for each of ephemeral, perennial, ground and unconventional water resources. Measurement is made by summing up national consumption of water from the four sources and calculating these totals as a percentage of the established and accepted sustainable yield.
  • INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN POPULATION CENTRES: The level of awareness and level of implementation of components of integrated water resource management (IWRM) in centers using water from various sources in Namibia. This simple indicator measures the level of effort being put into basic components of water demand management, as a part of integrated water resource management, and the level of awareness of authorities.
  • EFFECTIVENESS OF COMMUNITY BASED MANAGEMENT: The number of times Water Point Committees require the assistance of the Rural Water Supply. This simple indicator measures the effectiveness of the Water Point Committees to maintain the supply of water to the community
freshwater resources4
  • WHITE PAPER ON WATER AND NEW WATER ACT: A White Paper on Water and new Water Act that include allocation of water to an environmental reserve and focuses on sustainability of water use. Measurement of this simple indicator would consist of the presence of a carefully considered White Paper on water and a new Water Act.
  • DEPENDENCE ON SHARED RESOURCES: 1) The quantity of water abstracted from the shared perennial rivers as a percentage of the total agreed allocation to Namibia and 2) The quantity of water abstracted from the shared perennial rivers as a percentage of total water consumed in the country. Measurement is made by summing up the total water abstracted by bulk water suppliers and abstraction by riverside dwellers (estimated as accurately as possible).
  • CO-OPERATION WITH NEIGHBOURING RIPARIAN STATES: Co-operation with neighbouring riparian states is defined by the number of co-operation and allocation agreements in place between Namibia and the relevant states on a basin by basin basis.
social economic environment 14
  • FDI AS PERCENTAGE OF GDP: is the ratio between the net foreign direct investment inflows into the county as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (which reflects the total value added of all economic activity of the country); and it is used as (1) an indicator to measure the extent to which the country is able to mobilize external sources in support of economic development and (2) a proxy indicator for the extent of technology transfer;
  • “FISCAL INDISCIPLINE”: is developed as a combination of (1) the country’s debt service and (2) total tax income, both as a share of GDP. It is used to indicate the extent to which the financing of the Government budget deficit (1a) is carried over to future generations and/or (2a) is passed onto the economically active population, thereby reducing disposable income;
  • REAL ECONOMIC GROWTH RATE: relates the overall performance of the economy to the population growth rate. It provides an indicator on the extent to which the economy is able to carry its population (note that this indicator does not cover the distribution of income) and is calculated as the economic growth rate minus the population growth rate;
social economic environment
  • TOURISM EARNINGS AS PERCENTAGE OF GDP: is the ratio of all tourism related income as recorded in the National Accounts and the GDP. It indicates the extent to which the natural environment is used for tourism instead of primary resource utilization (agriculture and mining);
  • ECONOMIC DIVERSIFICATION: is developed as a composite indicator from the sectoral composition of GDP, Manufacturing Value Added (MVA) and the trend in the country’s Terms of Trade. It measures the purchasing power of exports in relation to imports showing the change in reliance on primary commodity production, reliance on primary inputs into manufacturing and the level of dependence on primary commodity exports;
  • HUMAN POVERTY INDEX: derived from five variables namely life expectancy, literacy, percentage of underweight children, access to safe water and access to health care. The indicator measures the general incidence of deprivation rather than the depth or severity of poverty;
social economic environment1
  • HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX: derived from four variables namely life expectancy at birth, school enrolment, adult literacy and per capita income. The indicator measures the general level of wellbeing of the population;
  • COLLECTIVE LAND MANAGEMENT INDICATOR: derived from the area of land registered as commercial and communal conservancies as a proportion of the total land area excluding national park areas;
  • RESULTS OF JUNIOR SECONDARY CERTIFICATE EVALUATIONS: providing a measure of the quality of education and allowing for comparison from year to year;
  • VULNERABILITY INDICATOR: derived from a classification of vulnerable sections of the population and environmental and economic conditions during a specific year. The data for this indicator is gathered on an annual basis by the Early Warning Unit and the Emergency Management Unit;
social economic environment2
  • RATE OF UNEMPLOYMENT: measures the proportion of the labour force which are not employed and which are available for employment and are seeking employment:
  • THE EXTENT OF GENDER EQUALITY: Derived from the extent to which women hold senior position in government as a proxy of access to decision making and the de-facto level of gender equality;
  • RATE OF GROWTH OF THE URBAN POPULATION: measuring the speed at which the size of the urban population is growing. By comparing the growth in urban population with the overall population growth rate in a specific geographical area, the change in pressure on both rural and urban environments can be deducted;
  • POPULATION PRESSURE INDICATOR: is derived from a combination of growing periods, population density,use of firewood for cooking and dependency on agriculture. It combines four variables with data at different levels of disaggregation to provide an indication of the extent of pressure exerted on the environment. It is expressed as the percentage of landmass under strong and medium pressure and is calculated through GIS spatial analysis.
agriculture land resources

Indicators: (10)

  • SECURITY OF TENURE: Security of tenure indicates the extent to which the users of land based resources feel secure in the user-rights which they enjoy. tenure security is likely to contribute significantly to more sustainable land use practices. Data to measure this indicator will have to be obtained through regular surveys in different regions of the country.
  • RANGELAND CONDITION INDEX: The Rangeland Condition Index is an indicator of the extent to which rangeland condition is improving or declining. Rangeland is measured as a condition score (percentage or index) in relation to the potential for that area. Four processes in the rangeland ecosystem are measured:
    • Water cycle (soil surface condition)
    • Mineral cycle (micro-organisms in soil)
    • Energy flow (vigour, density, composition)
    • Community dynamics (composition, ecological status, bush encroachment) This indicator is most useful at the local level.
agriculture land resources1
  • SUSTAINABLE IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT: This is a composite indicator including, initially: land area used for irrigated crop production. This shows the extent of investment in irrigation infrastructure, which may be considered a significant enhancement of natural resources available for agriculture and b) An assessment of progress towards the establishment of irrigation scheme management boards State of the Environment Report on Agriculture and Land Resources Agriculture & Land Resources Consortium giving users responsibility for large-scale irrigation scheme infrastructure. The presence of an irrigation board would indicate the likelihood that farmers are employing good irrigation management practices.
  • FOREST AND CROP AREA CHANGE: This indicator measures changes in absolute and percentage terms in the area of land in the northern communal areas (a) with forest cover, (b) that has been cleared for cultivation, and (c) that is actually cultivated. This indicator of changing pressures on land resources will give an indication of the degree to which:
      • forested areas are diminishing
      • cleared land is increasing
      • cultivated land is increasing
      • cleared land is being used for cultivation
agriculture land resources2
  • MAINTENANCE OF THE HYDROLOGICAL FUNCTION OF WETLANDS: Water supply, both in terms of quantity and quality, whether below or above ground, needs to be maintained if the products and services provided by wetlands are to continue to play an important role in agricultural production in Namibia. Given the assumption that water quantity and quality determine to a large extent the products and services (in terms of agriculture) provided by wetlands, this indicator would provide a direct measure of a wetland systems ability to continue to supply those goods and services.
  • PERCENTAGE GDP SPENT ON AGRICULTURE AND FOREST RESOURCES RESEARCH, EXTENSION AND TRAINING (RET).: This indicator measures the percentage of primary agricultural GDP and total GDP, and of GRN expenditure spent on agricultural and forest resources research, extension and training service provision. Its purpose is to monitor government expenditure on agricultural and forest resources-related RET, in comparison to other government services and in relation to the sector’s contribution to GDP, and international norms. RET services are one of society’s key means of facilitating its “response” to the changing status of natural resources, as well as in determining the nature of production “pressures” on the natural environment.
agriculture land resources3
  • POPULATION PRESSURE INDICATOR: The indicator on population pressure has been taken from the SOER on the Socio-Economic Environment in Namibia. (Urban Dynamics Africa, Trend Line 1999). This indicator consists of a number of variables: - population density, % population dependent on agriculture, % population using firewood for cooking and an aridity index, all of which directly affect agriculture and land use.
  • MAINTENANCE OF THE HYDROLOGICAL FUNCTION OF WETLANDS: Water supply, both in terms of quantity and quality, whether below or above ground, needs to be maintained if the products and services provided by wetlands are to continue to play an important role in agricultural production in Namibia. Assuming any decline in amount and quality of water supply to wetland systems results in a decline in wetland agricultural production, the indicator can be measured by using hydrological and water quality data currently being collected by DWA.
agriculture land resources4
  • GDP SPENT ON AGRICULTURE AND FOREST RESOURCES---ESEARCH, EXTENSION AND TRAINING (RET): % of primary agricultural GDP and total GDP, and of GRN expenditure spent on agricultural and forest resources research, extension and training service provision by the government.Based on published financial reports and national accounts.
  • POPULATION PRESSURE (CHANGE/MOVEMENT):The density of the population divided by the surface area. Measured through a combination of population density, percentage of the Population dependant on agriculture and the percentage of people using firewood for cooking. Overall, this measure is relative to the general carrying capacity of the land (relative to aridity index).
biodiversity parks tourism
  • Indicators (16)
  • MET’s ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION EXPENDITURE: a) MET’s total budget, including donor assistance for MET-registered projects, as a percentage of the total GRN budget. b) Donor aid as a percentage of MET’s total budget (including funding for research programmes). c) MET’s annual operating costs versus capital costs. - a) % and b) % c) Ratio
  • UNCONTROLLED BURNING: The extent and proportion of vegetation types burnt by uncontrolled fires per annum by location km2.
  • SPECIES DIVERSITY AND CONSERVATION STATUS: a) The total number of species per taxonomic group or the estimated number where the total is unknown. b) The number of Red Data species as a percentage of the total number of species. c) The number of endemic species as a percentage of the total number of Species - Number
biodiversity parks tourism1
  • BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION: The percentage of each major vegetation unit (Giess) conserved in P&Pas (including conservancies) and the percentage of areas of special ecological importance conserved, as defined in PART 3, section 1.3.2. - Area and percentage
  • MANAGEMENT OF PROTECTED AREAS: The number of P&PAs by protection category with current and implemented management plans – Number
  • INTERNATIONAL CONVENTIONS AND POLICIES: a) The number of international conventions, agreements, protocols and treaties signed by Namibia relating to Parks, Tourism and Biodiversity in their widest sense. b) The number of international conventions etc. implemented by Namibia c) The number of policies supporting International and National Conventions and commitments relating to Parks, Tourism and Biodiversity e.g. the Convention for Biological Diversity, CITES, the Namibian Constitution etc. - Number
biodiversity parks tourism2
  • THE AREA OF COMMUNAL CONSERVANCIES: The area that falls within the boundaries of gazetted communal area conservancies. The area that falls within the finalised boundaries of emerging communal area conservancies. - Square kilometres.
  • THE NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS IN REGISTERED COMMUNAL AREA CONSERVANCIES IN NAMIBIA: The number of individuals registered within communal conservancies as determined by conservancy constitutions. - Number.
  • THE TOTAL COMMUNAL CONSERVANCY INCOME FROM NATURAL RESOURCE BASED ACTIVITIES: Gross income earned and registered by conservancies in Namibian dollars over the period of one calendar year. - Namibian dollars.
biodiversity parks tourism3
  • NUMBER OF VISITORS TO EACH PARK AND PROTECTED AREA: The number of visitors to each registered Park and Protected Area, including conservancies per annum. - Number
  • VOLUME OF WOOD HARVESTED FOR SUBSISTENCE PURPOSES: The rate of removal of trees per annum for firewood, building timber, craft production and agricultural land clearance.- Tonnes per annum
  • LEGAL TRADE IN CITES SPECIES: a) Number of CITES-listed species being legally exported or sold. b) Number of permits issued and utilised for legal collecting and harvesting of CITES species. c) The number of CITES species being illegally poached or traded.- Number
biodiversity parks tourism4
  • ENFORCEMENT AND CONTROL OF ILLEGAL TRADE:a) The number of people and organisations involved in the control of illegal trade in wild species. b) The number of seizures/prosecutions/violations of illegal wild species per year. – Number
  • NUMBER OF VISITORS TO NAMIBIA: The number of visitors to Namibia per annum by country/area of origin. - Total number and percentage.
  • NUMBER OF RESEARCH PROGRAMMES: Total number of research programmes relating to parks, tourism and biodiversity initiated per annum. – Number
  • NUMBER OF GRADUATES IN NATURAL SCIENCES: The number of Namibians graduating in a tertiary institution in a biological science per year. - Number

Indicators (8)

  • CONTRIBUTION OF MINING TO GDP: Annual GDP from mining as a proportion of total annual GDP National Accounts, expressed as %
  • OTHER MANUFACTURING VS MINING FOREIGN EXCHANGE EARNINGS RATIO:Annual forex earnings of manufacturing other than fish and meat processing as a proportion of mining forex earnings. – National Accounts, expressed as %
  • MEMBERSHIP OF SMALL MINERS ASSOCIATION: Membership of Small Miners Association as a proportion of the total number of small miners. - Numbers supplied by the Small Miners Association (SMA)
  • PENDING MINERAL LICENCE APPLICATIONS: Total number of unprocessed applications for mineral licenses. - Total number of unprocessed applications for mineral licenses at the end of each year
  • MODIFICATIONS TO ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLANS REDUCEDING IMPACTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT: Annual number of modifications to environmental management plans which result in reduced impacts on the environment - Count of the annual number of modifications
  • ENVIRONMENTAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE: Proportion of lapsed Exclusive Prospecting Licenses (EPLs) that have complied with their environmental contracts relative to the total number of lapsed EPLs.
  • FREQUENCY AND SEVERITY OF MINE ACCIDENTS: Frequency: Number of accidents/200,000 employee hours worked Severity: Number of shifts lost/200,000 employee hours worked . - Obtain annual frequency and severity statistics from Annual Report of the Chamber of Mines of Namibia
  • GEOLOGICAL MAPPING:Total number of 1:50 000 geological sheets mapped each year vs total 1:50 000 sheets covering mappable geology.Count number of 1:50 000 geological sheets mapped each year
waste management pollution control
  • POLLUTION OF GROUNDWATER: The number of sites where unacceptable levels of concentration of contaminants have been measured expressed as a proportion of the total number of sites monitored. - Analysis for site-specific determinants in groundwater samples collected at specific monitoring sites.