BIO318: Statistics Workshop A brief primer on the use of statistics in the study of animal behaviour

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BIO318: Statistics Workshop A brief primer on the use of statistics in the study of animal behaviour Outline What is Statistics? Why do we use Statistics? Some “simple” guidelines Overview of the assignment Useful resources Questions What is Statistics?

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### BIO318: Statistics WorkshopA brief primer on the use of statistics in the study of animal behaviour

Outline
• What is Statistics?
• Why do we use Statistics?
• Some “simple” guidelines
• Overview of the assignment
• Useful resources
• Questions
What is Statistics?
• “A branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative [numerical] data”

http://wordnet.princeton.edu/

“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Interpret the results of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics
“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Interpret the results of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics
1. Cricket Aggression Experiment
• Question:
• What is the effect of female presence on male-male aggression in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus?
• Hypothesis:
• Female presence affects the aggressive behaviours of male crickets.
• Prediction:
• During aggressive contests, pairs of males in the presence of a female will behave differently than pairs of males on their own.
“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Interpret the results of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics
2. Cricket Aggression Raw Data:Aggressive Song Duration (s)

Independent Variable?

Dependent Variable?

# of IVs?

Type of IV?

Type of DV?

“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Interpret the results of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

• Check for data entry mistakes
• Helps you decide on the proper statistical test

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

• Check for data entry mistakes
• Helps you decide on the proper statistical test

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

• Check for data entry mistakes
• Confirms how you thought your data was organized

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Interpret the results of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics
“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Interpret the results of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics
4b. Assessing Parametric AssumptionsBoxplots

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Interpret the results of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics
• On-line tools
• Statistics software
“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Decipher the output of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics
6. Deciphering the Output
• Null Hypothesis (H0):
• No difference between two categories of IV
• Alternative Hypothesis (Ha):
• Categories of IV differ from one another

If p < 0.05, then reject H0 (i.e. H0 is false, therefore Ha must be true)

If p > 0.05, then do not reject H0 (i.e. results inconclusive)

“Simple” Guidelines
• Describe the structure of your data
• Decide what statistical test to employ
• Is your data parametric or not?
• Find an appropriate resource to carry out statistical test
• Decipher the output of statistical test
• Write-up the results and display the summary statistics

Song Duration (s)

Without Fem. With Fem.

Treatment

7. Summarize Data

Results:

• clear, concise, objective
• do not interpret data
• indicate the direction of effect, if any
• give test statistics, sample sizes, p-values

Figure 1: Give a descriptive caption.

Statistics Assignment
• analyze the six different aggressive behaviours
• make sure to use the appropriate parametric or nonparametric test
• write a results section
• construct figures to display results