BTEC Nationals in Aviation Operations Airport Ramp Handling
Airport Ramp Handling • The anatomy of an airport • The aircraft turnround • ATC functions • Communications • Safety hazards on the ramp • Aircraft loading – passengers and cargo • The regulations
Airport Ramp Handling Throughout this unit you will produce a: • Portfolio • Presentation • Report You will achieve: • A pass • A merit! • A distinction!!
Ramp or Apron Runway Taxiway Perimeter Track (Peri Track)
The Aircraft Turnround What is a “Turnround”?
Who / what is involved? Marshaller Passenger escorts Ground Power Steps Loaders Refuellers Engineers Caterers Cleaners Dispatchers Push Back / Powerback Deicing Organisations ATC Customs Immigration Airport Authority Police Security airline Ground handling agents Port health authority The Aircraft Turnround
The Aircraft Turnround The sequence
The Marshaller • Why have a marshaller? • What does he/ she do? • How does he/she do it? • Who employs the marshallers DEMONSTRATION!!
Escorting Passengers • What does a passenger escort do? • Why do we need passenger escorts? • Other functions of passenger escorts • Who employs passenger escorts?
Power on the Ground Combined Ground Power And Air Conditioning Unit Ground Power Unit Air Start Unit
Power on the Ground • Why do we need electrical power? • Why do we need air conditioning? • Why do we need air start units? • Which is better – fixed or mobile GPU and ACU? • Who provides the power?
Aircraft Loading • What is loaded? • How is it loaded? • Where is it loaded? • Health & safety precautions? • Unusual loads eg AVI, HUM, HAZ • Who employs the loaders?
Aircraft Re-fuelling • What kind of fuel is used? • Where are the fuel tanks? • How much fuel is loaded? • How much fuel is burned? • Who employs the re-fuellers? • Safety concerns?
Major Defects Flat tyre Engine failure Cracked windscreen Radio u/s Cabin crew seat u/s Intercom system u/s Emerg. lighting u/s Minor Defects Galley oven u/s Single toilet u/s Passenger seat u/s Cabin trim damaged Overhead bin u/s Defects (examples)
Aircraft Maintenance • What do aircraft engineers do? • Are they specialised? • How often are the aircraft serviced? • Where are the aircraft serviced? • How do they know if the aircraft has a technical problem? (Technical Log) • Who employs aircraft engineers?
Flight Catering • What is in-flight catering? • How many meals are loaded? • How are “special meals” catered for? • Apart from food, what else do the caterers provide? • Any health and safety concerns?
Aircraft Cleaning • What gets cleaned? • Why is cleaning on a turnround important? • What else gets serviced? • Who employs the aircraft cleaners?
Aircraft Push Back • What is a Push Back? • Why are Push Backs required? • Why are aircraft parked “nose-in”? • Who performs Push Backs? • Pushback BA 777 Sydney Airport
Aircraft Power Back • What is a Power Back? • Which aircraft perform Power Backs • Why is it not widely used? • DC9 Power Back
Flight Dispatcher • What does he/ she do? • Co-ordination role • Load planning • Verification • Ultimate responsibility
Typical Turnround Sequence Source: boeing.com
B757 Turnround Times Source: boeing.com
Speeding up boarding Source; boeing.com
Low Cost Carriers Aircraft Choice Why? The 737 is preferred by the large, successful low-cost carriers. This is a snapshot of the market at the end of 2004. All-737 operators shown in blue. All-A320 operators shown in red. The others operate mixed fleets or have indicated that they will. You'll see that of all the airplanes operated by the top-20 low-cost carriers, 86% of them are Boeing 737s. And even if all the airplanes on order by these 20 carriers at the end of 2004 were delivered today, the 737 would still have about 73% of the share of the low-cost market. And that doesn't even include the exciting order from Ryanair this week. Boeing 737Airbus 320 Source: boeing.com
Team Work Consider: • Which agencies need to work as teams to ensure an efficient turnround?