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Regulation of Calvin cycle

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  1. Regulation of Calvin cycle Rubisco is a prime target for regulation

  2. Activation of rubisco by carbamate

  3. Rubisco is activated by carbamylation CO2 concentration? pH? Alkaline pH favors Mg2+ concentration?

  4. Stroma pH And Mg2+ conditions regulate stromal FBP-1 high light Activation of Rubisco fig20-34

  5. Redox regulation of Calvin cycle with Thioredox: Activation of enzymes by regulating redox states of a disulfide bond

  6. enz activity Th-SH high light redox regulation of Calvin cycle enzymes via thioredoxin fig20-36

  7. Coordination of the light and dark reactions Light reactions Electron transfer Reduced ferrodoxin Thioredoxin Regulatory disulfide bonds in Calvin cycle enzymes Dark reactions

  8. Coordination of the light and dark reactions Light reactions Electron transfer pH Mg2+ Reduced ferrodoxin Thioredoxin Regulatory disulfide bonds in Calvin cycle enzymes Dark reactions

  9. Fat Metabolism

  10. Americans are getting fatter, so do the people in other developed countries

  11. Triacylglycerol: Fatty acids and glycerol Also called triglycerides or neutral fats Fatty acids

  12. Various lipids

  13. Dietary fats form micelles with the help of Bile salts

  14. Lipases release fatty acids and monoacylglycerol

  15. Transport lipids in Chylomicrons

  16. from McDonalds to Metabolism…

  17. Summary of dietary lipids processing

  18. Molecular structure of Chylomicrons

  19. Mobilization of the stored Triacylglycerol in adipose tissue

  20. Transport fatty acids from adipose tissue to muscle or other tissue Serum albumin

  21. Fatty acids and glycerol are the products from lipase cleavage

  22. Fate of glycerol

  23. Physiological roles for fatty acids Building blocks for phosphalipis and glycolipids Covalent modification of proteins Fuel Precursor for hormones and signaling molecules

  24. Fatty acids are oxidized in matrix of mitochondria Activation and transport fatty acids to mitochondria Three enzymatic reactions: Acyl CoA synthetase Carnitine acyl transferase I Carnitine acyl transferase II

  25. Activates fatty acid to form Acyl CoA Driving by hydrolysis of pyrophosphate

  26. Transport Fatty acids into mitochondria Carnitine acyltransferase I Carnitine acyltransferase II

  27. Formation of Acyl carnitine

  28. Normally, the transfer of an acyl group from an alcohol to sulfhyfryl group is thermodynamically unfavorable

  29. Four basic steps in b-oxidation

  30. Recurring metabolic motifs

  31. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase: an enzyme similar to succinate dehydrogenase The enzyme is located on the inner membrane The product is always trans

  32. Complex II succinate dehydrogenase Electron-transferring flavoprotein fig19-8

  33. Enoyl-CoA hydratase: similar to fumarase Always L configuration

  34. B-hydroxyl-CoA dehydrogenase: similar to malate dehydrogenase Only use L type of substrate

  35. Thiolase

  36. b-oxidation challenges monounsaturated FA polyunsaturated FA odd-carbon FA

  37. An isomerase is needed for unsaturated

  38. b-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids fig17-10

  39. b-oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids fig17-10

  40. A reductase and an isomerase

  41. Odd-chain fatty acids yield propionyl CoA Propionyl CoA carboxylase: biotin Mutase

  42. the coenzyme B12 reaction box17-2

  43. Ketosis and ketone bodies

  44. Synthesis of ketone bodies

  45. Ketone bodies can be regarded as a water-soluble, transportable form of acetyl units, provide alternative fuels Ketone bodies are produced in liver and are a major source of energy for some tissues

  46. From ketone bodies to acetyl CoA